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The terrestrial end-Permian mass extinction in South China

Published on Apr 1, 2016in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.616
· DOI :10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.07.002
Hua Zhang16
Estimated H-index: 16
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Changqun Cao23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 6 AuthorsShu-zhong Shen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract The end-Permian mass extinction reflects the most severe life crisis during the Phanerozoic and was associated with major global environmental changes. However, the consistency of the time and pattern of the terrestrial and marine extinctions remains controversial. In this paper, we presented detailed analyses of the high-resolution biostratigraphical and geochemical data from terrestrial sections in South China. Our analyses show that the transitional Kayitou Formation actually recorded the process of terrestrial mass extinction as evidenced by the mass disappearance of the Gigantopteris megaflora in the lower part, the dramatic reduction in abundance of palynomorphs in the middle, and the last occurrences of plant remains and abundant charcoal fossils in the uppermost part. It is associated with a distinct negative shift of δ13Corg, beginning in the middle part of the formation, which is correlative with that in the top of Bed 26 at the marine Meishan section. In addition, the Kayitou Formation is characterized by a distinct shift of lithofacies of fresh lake-swamp or river flat environment from olive/grey/black mudstone, siltstone, fine to coarse sandstone in the lower part to gradually increasing maroon rocks, to purely maroon mudrocks with poorly-sorted breccia, calcic palaeosols and calcareous nodules in the lowest part of the Dongchuan Formation, which indicates a dramatic collapse of soil system associated with rapid deforestation and climatic warming and drying. In the coastal area, the Kayitou Formation contains marine beds with the typical Permian–Triassic mixed faunas and floras which are correlative with the latest Changhsingian marine mixed fauna 1 at Meishan. The Kayitou Formation also recorded a distinct transgression that began in the latest Changhsingian. All above phenomena suggest that the Kayitou Formation is actually the witness of the terrestrial end-Permian mass extinction; and it is mostly or entirely of latest Changhsingian (Permian), rather than Triassic age.
  • References (87)
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References87
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#1Ian Metcalfe (UNE: University of New England (Australia))H-Index: 31
#2James L. Crowley (BSU: Boise State University)H-Index: 35
Last. Mark D. Schmitz (BSU: Boise State University)H-Index: 38
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Abstract Twenty-eight new high-precision Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry U-Pb zircon dates for tuffs in the Sydney and Bowen Basins are reported. Based on these new dates, the Guadalupian-Lopingian/Capitanian-Wuchiapingian boundary is tentatively placed at the level of the Thirroul Sandstone in the lower part of the Illawarra Coal Measures in the Sydney Basin. The Wuchiapingian-Changhsingian boundary is at or close to the Kembla Sandstone horizon in the Il...
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The end-Permian mass extinction was followed by the formation of an enigmatic rock layer with a distinctive macroscopic spotted or dendroid fabric. This deposit has been interpreted as microbial reef rock, digitate dendrolite, digital thrombolite, dendritic thrombolite, or bacterial deposits. Agreement has been reached in considering them as microbialites, but not in their formation. This study has revealed that the spotted and dendroid microbialites were composed of numerous fossil casts formed...
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#1Elke Schneebeli-Hermann (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 8
#2Wolfram M. Kürschner (University of Oslo)H-Index: 30
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Hypotheses about the Permian–Triassic floral turnover range from a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial plant communities to a gradual change in floral composition punctuated by intervals indicating dramatic changes in the plant communities. The shallow marine Permian–Triassic succession in the Amb Valley, Salt Range, Pakistan, yields palynological suites together with well-preserved cuticle fragments in a stratigraphically well-constrained succession across the Permian–Triassic boundary. Paly...
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Well-preserved marine fossils in carbonate rocks permit detailed studies of the end-Permian extinction event in the marine realm. However, the rarity of fossils in terrestrial depositional environments makes it more challenging to attain a satisfactory degree of resolution to describe the biotic turnover on land. Here we present new sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical (X-ray fluorescence) analysis from the study of four terrestrial sections (Chahe, Zhejue, Mide and Jiucaichong) in ...
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The end-Permian mass extinction is widely regarded as the largest mass extinction in the past 542 million years with loss of about 95% of marine species and 75% of terrestrial species. There has been much focus and speculation on what could have caused such a catastrophe. Despite decades of study the cause or causes remain mysterious. Numerous scenarios have been proposed, including asteroid impact, Siberian flood basalt volcanism, marine anoxia and euxinia, sea-level change, thermogenic methane...
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#2Haishui Jiang (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 12
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