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European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk

Published on Dec 1, 2015in Cancer Epidemiology2.619
· DOI :10.1016/j.canep.2015.05.009
Joachim Schüz40
Estimated H-index: 40
(IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer),
Carolina Espina12
Estimated H-index: 12
(IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)
+ 77 AuthorsTracy Lignini1
Estimated H-index: 1
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.
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  • References (30)
  • Citations (61)
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References30
Newest
#1Chiara Scoccianti (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 18
#2Michele Cecchini (OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)H-Index: 14
Last. Isabelle Romieu (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 79
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28 CitationsSource
#1Rüdiger GreinertH-Index: 12
#2E. de Vries (EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)H-Index: 44
Last. Joachim Schüz (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 40
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Abstract Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair...
44 CitationsSource
#1Neil McColl (PHE: Public Health England)H-Index: 2
#2Anssi Auvinen (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority)H-Index: 73
Last. Joachim Schüz (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 40
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Abstract Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Consi...
21 CitationsSource
#1Teresa Norat (Imperial College London)H-Index: 65
#2Chiara Scoccianti (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 18
Last. Isabelle Romieu (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 79
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Abstract Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed m...
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#1Carolina Espina (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 12
#2Kurt Straif (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 62
Last. Joachim Schüz (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 40
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Abstract People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment – exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amount...
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#1Silvia MinozziH-Index: 37
#2Paola ArmaroliH-Index: 12
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Abstract The European Code Against Cancer is a set of recommendations to give advice on cancer prevention. Its 4th edition is an update of the 3rd edition, from 2003. Working Groups of independent experts from different fields of cancer prevention were appointed to review the recommendations, supported by a Literature Group to provide scientific and technical support in the assessment of the scientific evidence, through systematic reviews of the literature. Common procedures were developed to gu...
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#1Patricia Villain (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 7
#2Paula N. Gonzalez (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 32
Last. Rolando Herrero (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 93
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Abstract Of the 2,635,000 new cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) occurring in the European Union (EU) in 2012, it is estimated that approximately 185,000 are related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ). Chronic infection with these agents can lead to cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, and stomach, respectively. Chronic infection with HCV can also lead to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Human...
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#1Paola ArmaroliH-Index: 12
#2Patricia Villain (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 7
Last. Nereo SegnanH-Index: 38
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Abstract In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: “Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: • Bowel cancer (men and women) • Breast cancer (women) • Cervical cancer (women).” Organized screening programs...
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#1Michael F. Leitzmann (University of Regensburg)H-Index: 81
#2Hilary J. Powers (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 33
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#1Maria E. Leon (IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)H-Index: 12
#2Armando Peruga (WHO: World Health Organization)H-Index: 20
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