Match!

Graphene/polyurethane composites: fabrication and evaluation of electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and cell viability

Published on Jan 1, 2015in RSC Advances3.049
· DOI :10.1039/C5RA20214K
Gagan Kaur5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation),
Raju Adhikari13
Estimated H-index: 13
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 4 AuthorsPathiraja A. Gunatillake29
Estimated H-index: 29
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
Abstract
Recently conducting and electroactive polymers have received the attention of researchers to explore their potential in biomedical applications. Polyurethanes (PUs) are of particular interest to make conductive polymer composites by the incorporation of conductive particles because of their inherent biocompatibility, biostability, excellent processability and good mechanical properties. In the present work, conductive composites of graphene and a siloxane polyurethane (Elast-Eon™) were prepared. The graphene/Elast-Eon™ composites were prepared using different methods i.e. solution mixing, melt processing and in situ polymerisation in order to compare the effect of the processing method on the conductivity of resulting composites. The composites were prepared with varying content of graphene and the electrical conductivity of the resulting composites was determined using a two point probe method. In order to improve the conductivity, effect of cooling rate during compression moulding as well as annealing of composite films was examined. Both of these approaches were found to significantly improve the conductivity of composites with lower graphene content (≤5 wt%). A conductivity of 1.12 × 10−3 S cm−1 was achieved with 5 wt% loading of graphene and a maximum conductivity of 5.96 × 10−2 S cm−1 was achieved with 15 wt% of graphene content. The composites were further characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile testing methods. The tensile and TGA results showed that the composites have good mechanical properties and showed that composites retain the thermal properties of parent PU material. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assay tests found that composites were not cytotoxic to living cells in vitro and potentially useful in biomedical applications.
  • References (54)
  • Citations (22)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
153 Citations
37 Citations
21 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References54
Newest
#1Hem Raj Pant (CBNU: Chonbuk National University)H-Index: 33
#2Pashupati PokharelH-Index: 14
Last. Cheol Sang Kim (CBNU: Chonbuk National University)H-Index: 22
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Cracking or delaminating with insufficient mechanical strength of biocompatible polymer layer applied for stent coating is a major limiting factor in stent coating technology. Novel strategies and smart materials are therefore required to develop stable polymeric layer on the surface of stent. In this study, an in situ polymerization technique is applied to fabricate graphene oxide (GO) loaded electrospun PU fibers. Viscous solution of in situ polymerized GO/PU composite in mixed solven...
28 CitationsSource
#1Lei Gong (DUT: Dalian University of Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Bo Yin (Sichuan University)H-Index: 16
Last. Ming-Bo Yang (Sichuan University)H-Index: 42
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The covalent functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via ester linkages (GO-es-PVA) as well as the characterization of modified graphene based Nylon-6 (PA6) composite prepared by solution mixing techniques was examined. The anchoring of PVA chains on GO sheets was confirmed by XPS and FTIR measurements. The resulting functionalized sample became soluble in formic acid, allowing solution-phase processing for preparation of PA6/GO composites. Answering to t...
37 CitationsSource
#1Gagan Kaur (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 5
#2Raju Adhikari (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 13
Last. Pathiraja A. Gunatillake (CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)H-Index: 29
view all 5 authors...
Electrically conductive polymeric materials have recently attracted considerable interest from academic and industrial researchers to explore their potential in biomedical applications such as in biosensors, drug delivery systems, biomedical implants and tissue engineering. Conventional conductive homopolymers such as polypyrrole and PEDOT show promising conductivity for these applications, however their mechanical properties, biocompatibility and processability are often poor. This has led to m...
179 CitationsSource
#1Richard Balint (University of Manchester)H-Index: 7
#2Nigel J. Cassidy (Keele University)H-Index: 22
Last. Sarah H. Cartmell (University of Manchester)H-Index: 26
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Developing stimulus-responsive biomaterials with easy-to-tailor properties is a highly desired goal of the tissue engineering community. A novel type of electroactive biomaterial, the conductive polymer, promises to become one such material. Conductive polymers are already used in fuel cells, computer displays and microsurgical tools, and are now finding applications in the field of biomaterials. These versatile polymers can be synthesised alone, as hydrogels, combined into composites o...
559 CitationsSource
#1Chang Il Kim (UOU: University of Ulsan)H-Index: 1
#2Seong Min Oh (UOU: University of Ulsan)H-Index: 3
Last. Han Mo Jeong (UOU: University of Ulsan)H-Index: 39
view all 6 authors...
Moderately functionalized graphenes, prepared by the thermal reduction of graphite oxide, were utilized to prepare electroconductive graphene/nylon 6 composites which exhibited a highest conductivity value of 6.84 × 10−4 S cm−1 for a low carbon incorporation of 0.54 wt% and a lowest percolation threshold of 0.39 wt%, the lowest values reported so far for graphene/nylon 6 composites. The functionality of the graphenes was modulated by the thermal reduction time. The graphitic structure of graphen...
11 CitationsSource
#1Sara M. Oliveira (University of Minho)H-Index: 12
#2Natália M. Alves (University of Minho)H-Index: 30
Last. João F. Mano (University of Minho)H-Index: 81
view all 3 authors...
Interactions of cells with biomaterials dictate their biocompatibility and biofunctionality, and are strongly influenced by surface properties. Moreover, it is important to control cell adhesion to surfaces for biological studies and diagnosis. Surface properties influence protein adsorption in terms of conformation and quantity adsorbed that further affects cell adhesion and proliferation. Several works have demonstrated that wettability influences cell attachment and proliferation. However, mo...
54 CitationsSource
#1Zhongbing Huang (Sichuan University)H-Index: 30
#2GuangfuYIN (Sichuan University)H-Index: 29
Last. Jianwen GuH-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
Polypyrrole (PPy), the earliest prepared conducting polymer, has good biocompatibility, easy synthesis and flexibility in processing. Compared with metal and inorganic materials, doped PPy has better mechanical match with live tissue, resulting in its many applications in biomedical field. This mini-review presents some information on specific PPy properties for tissue engineering applications, including its synthesis, doping, bio-modification. Although some challenges and unanswered problems st...
50 CitationsSource
#1Pallab Bhattacharya (IIT-KGP: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)H-Index: 14
#2Saptarshi Dhibar (IIT-KGP: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)H-Index: 17
Last. Chapal Kumar Das (IIT-KGP: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur)H-Index: 30
view all 6 authors...
The development of promising microwave absorbing materials is a booming field of research in both the commercial and defense sectors to prevent electromagnetic pollution, and also to enrich the field of stealth technology. Supercapacitors are a symbol of clean energy storage devices. The present work attends to the preparation of hexagonal shaped magnetic M-type hexaferrite, CuFe10Al2O19 (CFA) by a facile chemical co-precipitation method, and the formation of its composites (graphene/CFA) in the...
63 CitationsSource
#1Marcelo Antunes (UPC: Polytechnic University of Catalonia)H-Index: 19
#2José Ignacio Velasco (UPC: Polytechnic University of Catalonia)H-Index: 31
Abstract Increasingly demanding industry requirements in terms of developing polymer-based components with higher specific properties have recently aroused a great interest around the possibility of combining density reduction through foaming with the addition of small amounts of functional nanosized particles. Particular interest has been given to the creation of lightweight conductive polymers by incorporating conductive carbon-based nanoparticles, related to processing improvements in attaini...
109 CitationsSource
#1Sherif Araby (UniSA: University of South Australia)H-Index: 15
#2Qingshi Meng (UniSA: University of South Australia)H-Index: 20
Last. Jun Ma (UniSA: University of South Australia)H-Index: 56
view all 7 authors...
Abstract The greatest challenge in developing polymer/graphene nanocomposites is to prevent graphene layers stacking; in this respect, we found effective solution-mixing polymers with cost-effective graphene of hydrophobic surface. Since graphene oxide is hydrophilic and in need of reduction, highly conducing graphene platelets (GnPs) of ∼3 nm in thickness were selected to solution-mix with a commonly used elastomer – styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR). A percolation threshold of electrical conducti...
114 CitationsSource
Cited By22
Newest
#1Madhab Bera (IITR: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee)H-Index: 5
#2Arjun Prabhakar (IITR: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee)
Last. Pradip K. Maji (IITR: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Thermo-mechanical properties of amine functionalized graphene oxides filled polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites have been investigated in this work. Graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), hexamethylene diamine (HMD) and liquid NH3 separately to check the interaction with the PU matrix. The in-situ solution polymerization technique has been adopted for the preparation of nanocomposites. The functionalization of GO with PPD, HMD, and NH3 was proved by Fourier t...
Source
#1Hélio RibeiroH-Index: 9
Last. Glaura G. SilvaH-Index: 28
view all 11 authors...
Abstract Nanocomposites based on graphene oxide (GO), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and their hybrid GO/h-BN as nanofillers in polyurethane (PU) were prepared, and their structures and morphologies were studied. The efficient production of a few layers of nanofillers was completed using the direct liquid-phase exfoliation process. Mechanical and thermal tests were carried out to study the effect of the addition of GO, h-BN, and GO/h-BN at different wt% in the PU system. The tensile strength an...
1 CitationsSource
#1Amir Rostami (Persian Gulf University)H-Index: 1
#2Mehdi I. Moosavi (AUT: Amirkabir University of Technology)H-Index: 1
19 CitationsSource
#1Yingyan Mao (Capital Medical University)
Last. Li Liu (Huada: Beijing University of Chemical Technology)
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Graphene oxide (GO) has recently attracted substantial interest as a possible reinforcing agent for next generation rubber composite materials. In this research, GO was incorporated in natural rubber (NR) composites through latex co-coagulation technique. The microstructures of GO/NR composites were characterized through a combination of transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Differential scanning c...
Source
#1Ruonan Dong (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 8
#2Peter X. Ma (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 79
Last. Baolin Guo (Xi'an Jiaotong University)H-Index: 42
view all 3 authors...
Abstract: Muscle tissues are soft tissues that are of great importance in force generation, body movements, postural support and internal organ function. Muscle tissue injuries would not only result in the physical and psychological pain and disability to the patience, but also become a severe social problem due to the heavy financial burden they laid on the governments. Current treatments for muscle tissue injuries all have their own severe limitations and muscle tissue engineering has been pro...
15 CitationsSource
#1Le Hoang Sinh (Duy Tan University)H-Index: 14
#2Nguyen Dang Luong (Aalto University)H-Index: 18
Last. Jukka Seppälä (Aalto University)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACTIsocyanate-functionalised graphene (iGO) was prepared and incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane via an in situ polymerisation. Firstly, graphene oxide was successfully modified usi...
Source
#1Zhiqiang Huang (JNU: Jinan University)H-Index: 1
#2Zhenzhao Guo (JNU: Jinan University)
Last. Hong Li (JNU: Jinan University)H-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Electrical stimulation (ES) provides an effective alternative to peripheral nerve repair via conductive scaffolds. The aim of the present study is to investigate a graphene (GR)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite for the repair of peripheral nerve injury under ES. To this end, conductive composite membranes were fabricated by blending GR (2, 4 and 6 wt%) with TPU. GR maintains its own structure in the composite and enhances the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite. The c...
Source
#1Kannan Badri Narayanan (Yeungnam University)H-Index: 11
#2Soon Mo Choi (Yeungnam University)H-Index: 4
Last. Sung Soo Han (Yeungnam University)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The biological synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging phenomenon for developing biocompatible nanomaterials for its potential applications in nanomedicine. In this study, we demonstrated a simple, green, and non-toxic method for graphene synthesis using the live biomass of Lysinibacillus sphaericus as the reducing and stabilizing agent under ambient conditions. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of graphene from ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Yue Wang (CSU: Central South University)H-Index: 2
#2Xuelong Chen (NTU: Nanyang Technological University)H-Index: 7
Last. Jinglei Yang (HKUST: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 31
view all 6 authors...
Source
#1Saeid Bahrami (AUT: Amirkabir University of Technology)H-Index: 1
#2Atefeh Solouk (AUT: Amirkabir University of Technology)H-Index: 15
Last. Alexander M. SeifalianH-Index: 67
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Developing smart biomaterials with tailor-made properties is a key factor to successful tissue regeneration. The aims of this study were 1) development and characterization of graphene (G) based electroconductive materials for biomedical applications, 2) comparison of fabrication methods of the materials to the 3D scaffold. G has superior mechanical and biochemical properties as well as conductive. Multilayer G flakes were homogeneously dispersed into the polyurethane (PU) at 0.1, 2, 5,...
6 CitationsSource