Physical inactivity, excess adiposity and premature mortality

Published on Nov 1, 2003in Obesity Reviews8.192
· DOI :10.1046/j.1467-789X.2003.00120.x
Peter T. Katzmarzyk85
Estimated H-index: 85
(Queen's University),
Estimated H-index: 73
(Queen's University),
Chris I. Ardern27
Estimated H-index: 27
Summary The purpose of this report is to review the evidence that physical inactivity and excess adiposity are related to an increased risk of all-cause mortality, and to better identify the independent contributions of each to all-cause mortality rates. A variance-based method of meta-analysis was used to summarize the relationships from available studies. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for physical activity from the 55 analyses (31 studies) that included an index of adiposity as a covariate was 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–0.82], whereas it was 0.82 [95% CI 0.80–0.84] for the 44 analyses (26 studies) that did not include an index of adiposity. Thus, physically active individuals have a lower risk of mortality by comparison to physically inactive peers, independent of level of adiposity. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for an elevated body mass index (BMI) from the 25 analyses (13 studies) that included physical activity as a covariate was 1.23 [95% CI 1.18–1.29], and it was 1.24 [95% CI 1.21–1.28] for the 81 analyses (36 studies) that did not include physical activity as a covariate. Studies that used a measure of adiposity other than the BMI show similar relationships with mortality, and stratified analyses indicate that both physical inactivity and adiposity are important determinants of mortality risk.
  • References (170)
  • Citations (256)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
708 Citations
1,509 Citations
20 Authors (Russell R. Pate, ..., Jack H. Wilmore)
6,312 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1June Stevens (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 66
The effect of age on the weight associated with the lowest mortality and the effect of age on the mortality risk associated with obesity are issues fraught with methodologic complexities. Current evidence supports the notion that the body mass index associated with the lowest mortality falls within the range of 18.5 to 24.9 in men and women between the ages of 30 and 74. The impact of age on the mortality risk associated with obesity changes with age, however, and the direction of the trend depe...
88 CitationsSource
#1June Stevens (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 66
The Cancer Prevention Study II indicated that obesity might be associated with a smaller increase in the relative rate of mortality in African-Americans compared with whites. The absolute death rate in obese whites, however, was not higher than in obese African-Americans. Avoidance of obesity remains sound advice.
65 CitationsSource
#1M.S. David F. Williamson (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 1
37 CitationsSource
Over the years ideal or desirable weights have been associated with the lowest mortality and defined in a number of ways. The widely used height-weight tables of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, developed in the 1940s, have been supplanted in the last decade by new weight standards based on findings of several population-based studies that compared body weight to mortality. The Quetelet or body mass index (BMI), now used as the de facto criterion for defining a desirable weight index, in...
281 CitationsSource
#1Millicent Higgins (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 44
#2William B. Kannel (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 182
Last. Joseph Stokes (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Measurements of height, weight, skinfolds and waist girth were used as indicators of general and regional obesity in the Framingham study population of 5209 men and women. Mean values of cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose and uric acid increased with increasing body mass index (BMI). Weight gain was associated with increases and weight loss with decreases in these risk factors. Cigarette smoking was more prevalent in men and women with low quintile BMI. Upper quintile values of BMI, subs...
180 CitationsSource
#1Edward W. Gregg (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 81
#2Jane A. Cauley (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 145
Last. Kristine E. EnsrudH-Index: 110
view all 7 authors...
ContextPhysical activity has been related to reduced mortality, but it is not clear whether changes in physical activity affect mortality among older women.ObjectiveTo examine the relationship of changes in physical activity and mortality among older women.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsProspective cohort study conducted at 4 US research centers (Baltimore, Md; Portland, Ore; Minneapolis, Minn; and Monongahela Valley, Pa) among 9518 community-dwelling white women aged 65 years or older who wer...
310 CitationsSource
#1Flora Lubin (Sheba Medical Center)H-Index: 21
#2Ayala Lusky (Sheba Medical Center)H-Index: 32
Last. Rachel Dankner (Sheba Medical Center)H-Index: 26
view all 4 authors...
The Israeli population is characterized by its marked ethnic diversity. These ethnic groups (originating mainly from Yemen/Aden, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe/America) have kept traditional distinct lifestyle habits and exhibit different morbidity and mortality trends. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations among ethnic background, lifestyle patterns and 18-y all-cause mortality. A subgroup of 632 individuals aged 41-70 y, drawn from a larger stratified cohort f...
32 CitationsSource
#1Shankuan Zhu (Columbia University)H-Index: 30
#2Moonseong Heo (Columbia University)H-Index: 57
Last. David B. Allison (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 114
view all 5 authors...
Abstract PURPOSE: This study tests whether fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) have opposite associations with mortality in a nationally representative sample of females. METHODS: Data on 13,369 female participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I and II (aged 25 to 75 years) were analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 16.1 years. Ninety-seven percent of the participants with 3020 deaths were successfully followed. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds thickness were us...
73 CitationsSource
#1Anders EngelandH-Index: 49
#2Tone BjørgeH-Index: 41
Last. Aage TverdalH-Index: 52
view all 4 authors...
A large number of studies have explored the relation between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in adults. The relation between BMI in adolescence and mortality has been investigated to a lesser extent. It has been suggested that all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during adolescence, but the limitation of previous studies has been study size. The present study explored this relation in a Norwegian cohort of 227,003 boys and girls, aged 14-19 years, whose height and ...
183 CitationsSource
#1Tomoshige Hayashi (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 6
#2Edward J. BoykoH-Index: 73
Last. Wilfred Y. Fujimoto (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 62
view all 7 authors...
OBJECTIVE —Greater visceral adiposity, higher insulin resistance, and impaired insulin secretion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether visceral adiposity increases risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) independent of other adipose depots, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion is not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —Study subjects included 128 Japanese Americans with normal glucose tolerance at entry. Baseline variables included plasma glucose and insulin measured after an overn...
171 CitationsSource
Cited By256
#1Jan-Inge Bjune (University of Bergen)H-Index: 3
#2Laurence Dyer (University of Bergen)
Last. Gunnar Mellgren (University of Bergen)H-Index: 28
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Background Inhibition of Irx3 and Irx5 has been shown to reduce body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass through cell-autonomous and sympathetic-induced increases in adipocyte beiging and thermogenesis in mice and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the Irx control over beiging are still largely unknown, as illustrated by recent reports showing divergent effects of Irx3 on adipocyte metabolism and function. Here, we investigated the role of Irx3 in controlling beige pre...
#1Kohsuke Shirakawa (Keio: Keio University)H-Index: 6
#2Wataru YanoH-Index: 1
Last. Motoaki Sano (Keio: Keio University)H-Index: 50
view all 6 authors...
We previously found that senescence of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells is accelerated in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) due to a high-fat diet (HFD), and that these senescent-associated T cells cause chronic inflammation of visceral adipose tissue through secretion of osteopontin, provoking systemic insulin resistance. In this study, we examined whether the development of chronic inflammation and senescence-associated T cells in VAT of DIO mi...
#2Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos (UERJ: Rio de Janeiro State University)H-Index: 4
Last. Mario Bernardo-Filho (UERJ: Rio de Janeiro State University)H-Index: 23
view all 14 authors...
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increases the cardiovascular risk. Regular physical exercise can promote benefits, but the MetS individuals are demotivated to perform it. Thus, new possibilities are important as an alternative intervention. The whole-body vibration can be considered an exercise modality and would be a safe and low-cost strategy to improve functional parameters of individuals in different clinical conditions. The aim of this exploratory stud...
3 CitationsSource
#1Arieli Fernandes Dias (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 1
#2Caroline Brand (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 2
Last. Adroaldo Cezar Araujo Gaya (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 13
view all 9 authors...
#1Jordan Elliott-King (Lboro: Loughborough University)H-Index: 2
#2Daniele Magistro (NTU: Nottingham Trent University)H-Index: 8
Last. Eef Hogervorst (Lboro: Loughborough University)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
Dementia is characterised by cognitive impairment affecting daily life. Reducing lifestyle-related risk factors is currently the only method of treatment due to limited success of current pharmaceutical interventions. This chapter provides an overview of research on nutrients and their impact in preventing cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Physical activity and possibly cognitive activity may be more likely to have lifelong positive preventative effects against cognitive decline and dem...
#1Yousung Park (KU: Korea University)H-Index: 8
#2Saebom JeonH-Index: 1
Last. Tae Yeon Kwo (HUFS: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
view all 3 authors...
#1Da-Young Lee (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 1
#2Mi-Yeon Lee (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 1
Last. Ki Chul Sung (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 30
view all 3 authors...
This paper investigated the impact of A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on the risk of all-cause mortality compared with the impact of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI).This paper reviewed data of 213,569 Korean adults who participated in health checkups between 2002 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in Seoul, Korea. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed on the BMI, WC, and ABSI z score continuous variables as well as quintiles.During 1,168,668.7 person-years,...
4 CitationsSource
#1Meng Ying Cui (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 1
#2Yang Lin (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 1
Last. Ran Ji Cui (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the syndrome of cognitive and functional decline. Pharmacotherapy has always been in a dominant position for the treatment of AD. However, in most cases, drug therapy is accompanied with clinical delays when older adults have suffered from cognitive decline in episodic memory, working memory, and executive function. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise intervention may ameliorate the progression o...
4 CitationsSource
#1Daniel Collado-Mateo (University of Extremadura)H-Index: 9
Last. Narcis Gusi (University of Extremadura)H-Index: 23
view all 5 authors...
The main objective was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of exergame-based interventions on musculoskeletal pain, as well as to provide directions for the clinical practice. A systematic search was conducted in four electronic databases following PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) the subjects were suffering musculoskeletal pain, (b) the study was randomized controlled trial (RCT), (c) intervention was based on exergames, (d) the art...
7 CitationsSource
Since an estimated 70 to 80% of the rate of aging is related to lifestyle choices, it is possible for individuals to significantly influence their odds of healthy aging and longevity, even if healthy lifestyles are adopted later in life. Unhealthy or premature aging, which is largely associated with excessive intake of Western energy dense diets and sedentary lifestyles, involves a complex interplay between obesity and related metabolic dysfunctional effects leading to increased risk of chronic ...