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Chemostratigraphy and magnetic susceptibility of the Late Devonian Frasnian–Famennian transition in western Canada and southern China: implications for carbon and nutrient cycling and mass extinction

Published on Jan 1, 2015in Geological Society, London, Special Publications
· DOI :10.1144/SP414.8
Michael T. Whalen13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Maciej G. Śliwiński7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
+ 3 AuthorsAnne-Christine Da Silva13
Estimated H-index: 13
Cite
Abstract
We investigate the Late Devonian Frasnian- Famennian extinction interval in western Alberta and south China to shed light on the palaeoecological and palaeoceanographic conditions that characterize this biotic crisis. Both the Lower and Upper Kellwasser events are documented in western Canada. Only the Upper Kellwasser event has been evaluated in south China. Our multi- proxy geochemical approach reveals that these events are characterized by positive d 13 C and d 15 N excursions and increasing magnetic susceptibility (Canada/China) and increases in detrital (Al, Si, Ti, Zr), productivity (Cu, Ni, Zn) and redox (Mo, U, V) elemental proxies (Canada). We interpret these trends as part of a systemic palaeoecological shift associated with the development of wide- spread terrestrial forests and their alteration of chemical-mechanical weathering patterns. Increase in detrital proxies is thus interpreted as resulting from pedogenically driven weathering on the con- tinents that nutrified epeiric and continental margin seas. High biological productivity led to eutro- phication and development of suboxic to anoxic conditions during both events and probably euxinic conditions during the Upper Kellwasser event in western Canada. Positived 13 C excursions are the telltale signature of excessive carbon burial, while redox proxies and d 15 N records indicate
  • References (166)
  • Citations (11)
Cite
References166
Newest
Published on Aug 26, 2004
Erik Flügel26
Estimated H-index: 26
New Perspectives in Microfacies.- Carbonate Depositional Environments.- Microfacies Analysis: Methods.- Microfacies Data: Matrix and Grains.- Microfacies Data: Fabrics.- Quantitative Microfacies Analysis.- Diagenesis, Porosity, and Dolomitization.- Classification #x2013 A Name for Your Sample.- Limestones are Biological Sediments.- Fossils in Thin Section: It is Not That Difficult.- Microfacies Interpretation: Summarizing Microfacies Criteria: Microfacies Types.- Recognizing Paleoenvironmental C...
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Marine and Petroleum Geology3.54
A. C. Da Silva5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
David De Vleeschouwer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
+ 8 AuthorsDamien Pas7
Estimated H-index: 7
Low-field magnetic susceptibility (χin) measurements are quick and sensitive enabling the creation of high-resolution records; making χin an attractive correlation tool and a proxy for paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. In geologically young material – foremost in Cenozoic sediments – χin belongs to the geoscientist's toolkit. However, χin is a convolved signal and may reflect other processes than the often implicitly inferred depositional conditions. Diagenesis, remagnetization and low-grade m...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta4.26
Tracy M. Quan10
Estimated H-index: 10
(RU: Rutgers University),
James D. Wright45
Estimated H-index: 45
(RU: Rutgers University),
Paul G. Falkowski107
Estimated H-index: 107
(RU: Rutgers University)
Abstract In all aquatic environments, nitrogen cycling within the water column is strongly influenced by oxygen. We hypothesize that the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of organic matter deposited in the sediments is a proxy for the redox state of the water column at the time of deposition. We tested the hypothesis by measuring the bulk sedimentary δ 15 N values in a drill core from the Black Sea, a basin that alternates between oxic, less saline conditions and anoxic, marine conditions o...
Published on Sep 1, 2012in Chemical Geology3.62
Thomas J. Algeo31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Harold D. Rowe16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UTA: University of Texas at Arlington)
Abstract Recent studies have identified a range of new applications of trace-metal concentration data in the analysis of paleoceanographic systems. In restricted anoxic marine systems, trace-metal/TOC ratios can provide insight into the degree of watermass restriction and estimates of deepwater renewal times. In such systems, secular changes in sediment trace-metal ratios may provide evidence of the chemical evolution of basinal deepwaters in response to differential rates of trace-metal removal...
Published on Aug 1, 2012in Terra Nova2.46
Maciej G. Śliwiński7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Michael T. Whalen13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)
+ 1 AuthorsFrantisek Majs2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)
Terra Nova, 24, 301–309, 2012 Abstract Factor analyses were applied to trace element and magnetic susceptibility (MS) records of the Late Devonian palaeoceanographic ‘punctata Event’ perturbation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to constrain the extent to which geochemical anomalies were driven by 1) changes in clastic input (Factor 1; 55.1% of total variance) vs. 2) anoxia in the depositional environment (Factor 2; 35.2% of total variance). MS associates only with Factor 1 (r = 0.971) an...
Published on Oct 1, 2011in PALAIOS1.64
Jared R. Morrow12
Estimated H-index: 12
(SDSU: San Diego State University),
Peter J. Harries18
Estimated H-index: 18
(USF: University of South Florida),
Joseph G. Krivanek1
Estimated H-index: 1
(USF: University of South Florida)
The temporally extensive late Middle through Late Devonian biotic crisis involved at least three distinct peaks of elevated extinction intensity during an interval spanning ∼25 myr and resulted in the preferential elimination of certain shallow-marine, warm-water taxa, especially members of reef communities. By the end of the second peak, delimited by the Frasnian–Famennian (F–F) boundary, the stromatoporoids, members of the dominant constructor guild in mid-Paleozoic reefal ecosystems, had ceas...
Published on Jul 1, 2011in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Maciej G. Śliwiński7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Michael T. Whalen13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)
+ 2 AuthorsJed Day12
Estimated H-index: 12
(ISU: Illinois State University)
Abstract Late Devonian marine deposits in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were analyzed for (1) accumulations of bioproductivity and paleoredox trace element proxies and for (2) variations of δ 13 C (carb and org) and δ 15 N org in order to understand and interpret the regional history of the global yet short-term ‘ punctata Event’ geochemical perturbation. Statistical correlations suggest that changes in detrital input and associated micronutrient delivery were the main driver of a eutroph...
Published on Apr 1, 2011in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Brooks B. Ellwood35
Estimated H-index: 35
(LSU: Louisiana State University),
Jonathan H. Tomkin16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
+ 5 AuthorsAlexander J. Bartholomew3
Estimated H-index: 3
(State University of New York at Purchase)
Abstract Here we propose an approach to establish a preliminary age chronology for complete stages within the Phanerozoic by applying cyclostratigraphic methods that employ high-resolution data sets. This requires use of geochemical or geophysical data known to serve as a cyclic climate proxy. To demonstrate the method, we use the magnetostratigraphic susceptibility technique as the basis for fitting a climate model to the Givetian Stage of the Middle Devonian System. We show a Milankovitch ecce...
Published on Dec 1, 2010in Journal of Sedimentary Research2.28
Michael T. Whalen13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
James E. Day6
Estimated H-index: 6
(ISU: Illinois State University)
Abstract Upper Devonian rocks in western Canada were deposited as carbonate-platform and surrounding slope and basinal rocks during a second-order sea-level cycle, characterized by long-term climatic warming, that ended with cooling associated with the Frasnian–Famennian mass-extinction event. In this contribution, we assess the hypothesis that high-resolution magnetic susceptibility (MS) data records cross-basin variations that are intimately tied to sea level and associated climatic change, th...
Published on Jun 1, 2010in Journal of Earth Science1.78
Thomas J. Algeo31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Stephen E. Scheckler13
Estimated H-index: 13
(VT: Virginia Tech)
Cited By11
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Global and Planetary Change4.10
Sarah K. Carmichael7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ASU: Appalachian State University),
Johnny A. Waters14
Estimated H-index: 14
(ASU: Appalachian State University)
+ 2 AuthorsErika Kido6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Graz)
Abstract The Late Devonian (383-359 Ma) was a time of prolonged climate instability with catastrophic perturbation of global marine ecosystems at the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) and the Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundaries. The causes and mechanisms of anoxia and extinction at the F-F interval are not clearly delineated, and alternative explanations for virtually every aspect of this interval are still intensely debated. In many (but not all) locations, the F-F interval is characterized by two d...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
L.M.E. Percival (UNIL: University of Lausanne), David Selby33
Estimated H-index: 33
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 6 AuthorsKarl B. Föllmi32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UNIL: University of Lausanne)
Anomalously high rates of continental weathering have frequently been proposed as a key stimulus for the development of widespread marine anoxia during a number of Late Devonian environmental and biospheric crises, which included a major mass extinction during the Frasnian–Famennian transition (marked by the Upper and Lower Kellwasser horizons). Here, this model is investigated by presenting the first stratigraphic record of osmium-isotope trends (187Os/188Os) in upper Devonian strata from the K...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Scientific Reports4.01
L. M. E. Percival1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UNIL: University of Lausanne),
Joshua H.F.L. Davies8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Geneva)
+ 3 AuthorsKarl B. Föllmi32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UNIL: University of Lausanne)
The Frasnian–Famennian boundary records one of the most catastrophic mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic Eon. Several possible causes for this extinction have been suggested, including extra-terrestrial impacts and large-scale volcanism. However, linking the extinction with these potential causes is hindered by the lack of precise dating of either the extinction or volcanic/impact events. In this study, a bentonite layer in uppermost-Frasnian sediments from Steinbruch Schmidt (Germany) is re-ana...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Mikołaj K. Zapalski8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Warsaw),
Jakub Nowicki1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsBłażej Berkowski9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań)
Abstract The Frasnian-Famennian biodiversity crisis has traditionally been considered one of the “Big Five” mass extinctions; among deep changes in the biosphere, it almost completely erased shallow-water marine ecosystems like coral-stromatoporoid reefs, which were widespread on the carbonate platforms in the Devonian. The high biodiversity of bioconstructors during the Givetian-Frasnian acme of Palaeozoic reef development contrasts sharply with very low biodiversity levels during the Famennian...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Nature Communications11.88
David De Vleeschouwer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Vrije Universiteit Brussel),
Anne-Christine Da Silva13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UU: Utrecht University)
+ 5 AuthorsPhilippe Claeys31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
The Late Devonian envelops one of Earth’s big five mass extinction events at the Frasnian–Famennian boundary (374 Ma). Environmental change across the extinction severely affected Devonian reef-builders, besides many other forms of marine life. Yet, cause-and-effect chains leading to the extinction remain poorly constrained as Late Devonian stratigraphy is poorly resolved, compared to younger cataclysmic intervals. In this study we present a global orbitally calibrated chronology across this mom...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Geology5.01
Huyue Song13
Estimated H-index: 13
(China University of Geosciences),
Haijun Song19
Estimated H-index: 19
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 6 AuthorsAriel D. Anbar56
Estimated H-index: 56
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments1.07
Peter Königshof10
Estimated H-index: 10
(AMNH: American Museum of Natural History),
Katarzyna Narkiewicz1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsJohnny A. Waters14
Estimated H-index: 14
(ASU: Appalachian State University)
Recent study of Middle to Upper Devonian deposits in the Dong Van area, northeast Vietnam, has revealed new, more detailed information of both the stratigraphic record of the Si Phai section and global Devonian bioevents. Four possible equivalents of well-known Devonian events of different magnitude were found in Vietnam, an area which is underrepresented in that respect: the (?) Kacak Event, the (?)pumilio Events, the late Middle Givetian Taghanic Event and the Frasnian/Famennian Kellwasser Eve...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
J. Andrew Beard2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UConn: University of Connecticut),
Andrew M. Bush13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UConn: University of Connecticut)
+ 2 AuthorsMichael T. Hren19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UConn: University of Connecticut)
Abstract Two pulses of extinction in the late Frasnian (Late Devonian), the Lower and Upper Kellwasser (LKW and UKW) events, coincided with the deposition of organic-rich strata in many parts of the world, including the Appalachian Basin. Here, we describe two stratigraphic sections from Tioga, north-central Pennsylvania, that span the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) boundary interval. The F-F boundary and UKW-equivalent strata are probably located in the covered interval between the two sections, but ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Jed Day12
Estimated H-index: 12
(ISU: Illinois State University),
Brian J. Witzke9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UI: University of Iowa)
Abstract Upper Devonian (Upper Frasnian) strata in the Iowa area (central United States) provide one of the best records in North America of Late Frasnian sea-level history and the associated Kellwasser Extinction Events within a detailed conodont biostratigraphic framework. Rich conodont faunas span Frasnian Zones 11 through 13c. Diverse benthic faunas of the Lime Creek Formation provide an unparalleled paleontologic record to examine the effects of the Kellwasser extinctions of benthic faunas ...
Published on Oct 1, 2016in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Ruo-ying Fan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences),
Yiming Gong10
Estimated H-index: 10
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous deep-sea deposits of the western Junggar, NW China contain 21 ichnotaxa: Arenituba verso (Chamberlain), Chondrites cf. intricatus (Brongniart), Chondrites targionii (Brongniart), ? Chondrites isp., Gordia marina Emmons, Halopoa imbricata Torell, Helminthoidichnites isp., Helminthopsis cf. hieroglyphica Wetzel and Bromley, Laevicyclus isp., Lophoctenium comosum Richter, ? Multina isp., Nereites missouriensis (Weller), Phycodes cf. bilix (Ksiązkiewicz)...
View next paperThe Late Devonian Frasnian–Famennian (F/F) biotic crisis: Insights from δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg and 87Sr / 86Sr isotopic systematics