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Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) I — Effects on growth and protein retention

Published on Nov 1, 2007in Aquaculture3.022
· DOI :10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.08.034
A.-C. Hansen9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad),
Grethe Rosenlund32
Estimated H-index: 32
+ 2 AuthorsGro-Ingunn Hemre12
Estimated H-index: 12
(NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)
Abstract
Abstract A regression design with increasing levels of a plant protein mixture replacing fish meal in diets for Atlantic cod, was used to elucidate effects on growth, feed utilization (FCR), digestibility (ADC), and retention of nutrients (PER, PPV and HSI). The plant protein diets contained soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal, all of high quality, and were added crystalline methionine and lysine to achieve levels of indispensable amino acids for maximizing growth in other fish species. Initial fish weight was 1652 ± 6 g (mean ± SEM) and the experiment lasted for 28 weeks from December 2004. High growth (SGR 0.31–0.35) and feed utilization (FCR 1.06–1.26) were obtained up to 50% plant protein inclusion. Above this inclusion level, growth (SGR 0.30–0.14) and feed utilization (FCR 1.42–2.71) were reduced. None of the diets affected whole body, liver or muscle proximate compositions. Hepatosomatic index was not effected by diet up to 75% plant protein (HSI 12.7–14.3), but was significantly lower for the 100% plant protein diet group (HSI 10.1–11.4). Plasma and muscle free amino acid pools, sampled 5 h post-feeding, partly reflected diet amino acid composition. Reduced protein retention was found as dietary plant protein increased (PPV 0.45–0.16 and PER 2.11–0.73), however without any reductions in apparent digestibility coefficients. There was a decrease in vitamin B 12 concentrations in the diets (120–10 μg kg − 1 ) as inclusion of plant protein increased, but no specific deficiency symptoms were detected in the fish. Furthermore, the sufficiency of dietary methionine supply in the highest replacement groups, can be questioned based on low levels in the muscle free amino acid pool. Overall conclusion is a great potential for using quite high inclusions of plant proteins in cod diets, provided that the plant ingredients are of high quality.
  • References (35)
  • Citations (134)
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References35
Newest
#1A.-C. Hansen (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 9
#2Ørjan KarlsenH-Index: 30
Last. Gro Ingunn Hemre (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
The present trials aimed to investigate the effects of replacing fish meal with plant proteins in diets for cod, using a regression design where fish meal constituted the control. The plant protein diets were formulated to meet the amino acid requirements according to NRC (1993) and contained corn gluten meal, soybean meal, a mixture of these, or a mixture of wheat gluten meal and soybean concentrate. The plant protein fraction constituted up to 440 g kg )1 of the extruded diet. Two feeding expe...
41 CitationsSource
#1Marit Espe (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 37
#2A. LemmeH-Index: 12
Last. Adel El-MowafiH-Index: 9
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Abstract Two trials (I and II) were conducted to finally determine the Lys requirement in the Atlantic salmon during the fast growing period in seawater. First three test diets with well balanced AA's as well as a IAA:DAA ratio close to 1, but differing in amount and source of an attractant, were developed allowing for both a reduction of dietary Lys and a reasonable performance when supplementing Lys. The diets were based on our previous study in which all fish meal was replaced by plant protei...
122 CitationsSource
#1Anders AksnesH-Index: 22
#2Britt HopeH-Index: 8
Last. Sissel AlbrektsenH-Index: 16
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Fish hydrolysate was evaluated as feed ingredient in high plant protein diets in an 89 days feed experiment with Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The fish hydrolysate was size fractionated by ultra- and nano-filtration and the various fractions were tested specifically as feed ingredients to trace any effect observed with the hydrolysate. All diets contained 68% of total protein as plant protein, added as a mixture of corn gluten, full-fat soy bean meal, soy protein concentrate and extracted soy bea...
68 CitationsSource
#1Ståle RefstieH-Index: 24
#2Thor Landsverk (NMBU: Norwegian University of Life Sciences)H-Index: 23
Last. Åshild Krogdahl (NMBU: Norwegian University of Life Sciences)H-Index: 46
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Abstract The objectives of this work were to evaluate how dietary soybean meal (SBM) or a soy meal made by bioprocessing the SBM (BPSBM) to remove anti-nutritional factors affected hydrolytic capacity, amino acid absorption, intestinal morphology, and microflora along the intestinal tract of Atlantic cod at two life stages. Three fish meal based standard cod diets were formulated to contain no soy (FM control), 25% SBM, or 22% BPSBM. Prior to sampling the diets were fed to duplicate groups of 0....
98 CitationsSource
#1Sissel AlbrektsenH-Index: 16
#2Harald MundheimH-Index: 10
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Abstract Atlantic cod were fed six diets where the ratio of protein from fish meal to vegetable protein were varied from 91%, 67% to 46%, respectively. The experimental groups were performed in triplicate in a 20 week growth trial, increasing fish weight from about 167 g to 690 g. The vegetable protein sources constituted full-fat soybean meal and corn gluten meal at a fixed ratio of 1:2, and replaced either a high quality fish meal (DC Mink 92.3%) or a lower quality fish meal (DC Mink 85.6%) in...
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#2Ståle RefstieH-Index: 24
Last. Anders Skrede (NMBU: Norwegian University of Life Sciences)H-Index: 30
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Abstract The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on digestibility in Atlantic cod and effects of biotechnological processing of soybean meal. Other objectives were to find out if apparent digestibility in cod was affected by age, temperature and/or faecal sampling methods, and to map digestion and absorption patterns along the intestinal tract for different age classes and diets. A control diet with fish meal as the main protein...
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#2Grethe RosenlundH-Index: 32
Last. Gro-Ingunn Hemre (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 12
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This paper reports on the use of plant protein in cod diets, and where corn gluten meal, soybean meal, a mixture of these, or a mixture of wheat gluten meal and soy protein concentrate, substituted fish meal in a regression design up to 440 g kg−1 plant ingredients. Feeding lasted for a period of 20 weeks. High growth rates were obtained, and fish were able to maintain growth in all groups by increasing feed intake when plant proteins exerted high amounts of the protein fraction. This was confir...
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#1Ørjan KarlsenH-Index: 30
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Last. Grethe RosenlundH-Index: 32
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Abstract Atlantic cod were fed 7 different diets from August 2001 to June 2002 varying in protein (range 36–66% of feed), lipid (10–28% of feed) and starch (4–19% of feed) concentration. These dietary treatments were duplicated in netpens with continuous light from metal halogen lamps mounted above surface and under natural light conditions. None of the diets resulted in impaired health of the fish measured as mortality or increased plasma levels of organ specific transaminases or glucose. A few...
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This experiment evaluated the nutritional value of extracted soybean meal (SBM) for on-grown Atlantic cod, and if this was improved by bioprocessing into a product with reduced contents of antinutrients (BPSBM). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic extruded diets contained no soy (FM control), or 24% of total protein from either soy product. Each diet was fed to duplicate groups of 534 g (1-year old) and 1750 g (2-year old) cod in sea pens equipped with feed waste collectors. The experiment l...
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Currently, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is the primary species being developed for commercial culture, with activities concentrated around the North Atlantic. In addition, closed life cycles have been established for haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), pollock (Pollachius pollachius), and hake (Merluccius australis), but production of these species (in Canada, Spain, and Chile) is rather modest. In the short- to medium-term, Atlantic cod will be the dominant gadoid species in culture, and it is b...
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