Gordura visceral e síndrome metabólica: mais que uma simples associação

Published on Apr 1, 2006in Arquivos Brasileiros De Endocrinologia E Metabologia
· DOI :10.1590/S0004-27302006000200009
Fernando Flexa Ribeiro Filho8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo),
Lydia Sebba Souza Mariosa2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)
+ 1 AuthorsMaria Teresa Zanella19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo)
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is seen nowadays as a worldwide epidemic event associated with high cardiovascular morbi-mortality and high socioeconomic cost. The ponderal gain is an independent predictor for the development of MS, although not all obese individuals present it. On the other hand, some populations with low obesity prevalence present high prevalence of MS and cardiovascular mortality. The distribution of corporal fat is relevant and visceral fat (VF), specifically, seems to be the link between adipose tissue and insulin resistance (IR), a mean feature of MS. Adipose tissue is now considered a complex organ with multiple functions. VF presents metabolic properties, which are different from the gluteo-femoral subcutaneous fat and related to IR. Several studies show the narrow relationship of abdominal adiposity with the glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and arterial hypertension. More than a simple association, recently it is thought that the VF plays a central part in the physiopathology of MS. Consequently, the quantification of VF plays an important role to identify individuals with larger risk for development of MS, who should be chosen for early interventions in the attempt of reducing the impact of metabolic abnormalities on cardiovascular mortality. This article discusses particularities of the central distribution of fat in MS context, possible physiopathogenic mechanisms related to the VF and available methods for the evaluation of abdominal adiposity.
  • References (80)
  • Citations (113)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
80 Citations
200115.27Diabetes Care
8 Authors (Bo Isomaa, ..., Leif Groop)
3,897 Citations
2,110 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
The relationship between obesity and insulin resistance, while well recognized for many years, has nonetheless been confusing since not all obese individuals have insulin resistance (1) and because insulin resistance occurs in individuals who have BMIs that are within the normal or mildly overweight categories (2). Early attempts to understand the relationships between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease focused on the waist-to-hip ratio as a means of distinguishing those indivi...
219 CitationsSource
It has been known for over half a century that accumulation of fat in the upper body is associated with metabolic complications of obesity. The mechanism responsible for this association is widely believed to be insulin resistance, which is frequently present in individuals with upper-body obesity (1) and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk (2). The upper-body obesity phenotype is accompanied by increased free fatty acid (FFA) flux and concentration, whereas individuals with predomi...
83 CitationsSource
#1Jaswinder K. Sethi (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 33
#2Antonio Vidal-Puig (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 78
Human obesity-related diabetes and the accompanying metabolic disorders have been specifically linked to increased visceral adipose tissue mass. Understanding the differences in biology of the two human fat depots (visceral and subcutaneous) might hold the key to therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing obesity-induced insulin resistance and alleviating symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Visfatin (pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor, PBEF) is a novel adipokine that appears to be preferentially p...
190 CitationsSource
Several studies showed that after a fatty meal, plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are higher in patients with coronary heart disease. This abnormality may explain why some individuals develop atherosclerotic disease despite normal fasting lipid values. TG-rich lipoproteins are involved in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. TG, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol (RLP-C) and RLP-TG increase after fat load and could contribute to atherothrombosis. Postprandial lipaemia is not a uniform abnormality....
109 CitationsSource
#1Alexandros N. Vgontzas (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 63
#2Edward O. Bixler (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 72
Last. George P. Chrousos (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 152
view all 3 authors...
Summary Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder particularly among middle-aged, obese men, although its existence in women as well as in lean individuals is increasingly recognized. Despite the early recognition of the strong association between OSA and obesity, and OSA and cardiovascular problems, sleep apnea has been treated as a ‘local abnormality' of the respiratory track rather than as a ‘systemic illness.' In 1997, we first reported that the pro-inflammatory cytokines interle...
419 CitationsSource
#1Bret H. Goodpaster (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 81
#2Shanthi Krishnaswami (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 6
Last. A. Newman (University of Pittsburgh)H-Index: 150
view all 9 authors...
Background:Themetabolicsyndromeisadisorderthat includes dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension and is associated with an increased risk of diabetes andcardiovasculardisease.Wedeterminedwhetherpatterns of regional fat deposition are associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed that included a random, population-based, volunteer sample of Medicare-eligible adults within the general communities of Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn. T...
450 CitationsSource
#1Paul M. Stewart (University of Birmingham)H-Index: 89
25 CitationsSource
#1Morvarid Kabir (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 14
#2Karyn J. Catalano (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 11
Last. Richard N. Bergman (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 96
view all 7 authors...
The mechanism by which increased central adiposity causes hepatic insulin resistance is unclear. The “portal hypothesis” implicates increased lipolytic activity in the visceral fat and therefore increased delivery of free fatty acids (FFA) to the liver, ultimately leading to liver insulin resistance. To test the portal hypothesis at the transcriptional level, we studied expression of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in the fat-fed dog model with visceral adiposity vs. contr...
249 CitationsSource
#1Francesco GiorginoH-Index: 44
#2Luigi LaviolaH-Index: 29
Last. Jan W. Eriksson (Umeå University)H-Index: 35
view all 3 authors...
Adipose tissue is now recognized to have a multitude of functions that are of importance in the regulation of energy balance and substrate metabolism. Different hormones, in particular insulin and catecholamines, govern the storage and utilization of energy in the triglyceride depots. In addition, adipocytes produce several different substances with endocrine or paracrine functions, which regulate the overall energetic homeostasis. With excess energy storage, obesity develops, leading to increas...
190 CitationsSource
#1Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff (UFV: Universidade Federal de Viçosa)H-Index: 20
#2Josefina Bressan Resende Monteiro (UFV: Universidade Federal de Viçosa)H-Index: 9
O tecido adiposo e um orgao dinâmico que secreta varios fatores, denominados adipocinas. Eles estao relacionados, direta ou indiretamente, em processos que contribuem na aterosclerose, hipertensao arterial, resistencia insulinica e diabetes tipo 2, dislipidemias, ou seja, representam o elo entre adiposidade, sindrome metabolica e doencas cardiovasculares. Na obesidade, os depositos de gordura corporal estao aumentados, apresentando consequente elevacao na expressao e secrecao das adipocinas, pro...
80 CitationsSource
Cited By113
Background The intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (cIMT) and endothelial dysfunction are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Objectives To evaluate the correlation between cIMT, brachial intraluminal diameter and flow-mediated vasodilation on the reactive hyperemia phase in adolescents with obesity with predictors of CV risk. Methods Seventy-three pubertal patients with overweight or obesity were evaluated (45 girls) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.9 (2.5) year...
#1Camila Kummel Duarte (UFMG: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais)
#2Victória Boccardi (UFMG: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais)
Last. Paul F. Jacques (Tufts University)H-Index: 100
view all 5 authors...
AbstractTo analyze the effects of dairy intake on cardiometabolic risk markers compared to other dietary fat sources in adults. Literature database and gray literature were searched for studies pub...
#1Souravh Bais (Ganpat University)H-Index: 5
#2Nilesh J. Patel (Ganpat University)H-Index: 1
Abstract Background Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted by adipocytes. Aim The aim of present review is to enlist them all, and mention their significance in obesity, which helps researchers in drug discovery and future medicine. Material and methods The last 20 years data has been searched and studied to mention their current role in obesity treatment and ailments of disease. Results and conclusion Adiponectin exert its action through receptors AdipoR1, AdipoR2, T-cadherin. In muscle Adip...
view all 4 authors...
New technologies have been developed with the objective of reducing adiposities in a less invasive way, among them is the selective cooling technique, cryolipolysis. The objective of this study was to perform an analysis of the body composition of women submitted to cryolipolysis using values provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). This was a longitudinal study, with 53 women, aged 20–35 years, and with localized abdominal adiposity. Mass, stature, abdominal adipometry and DXA scanni...
#1Rommel Larcher Rachid Novais (UFSJ: Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei)
#2Ana Carolina Corrêa Café (UFSJ: Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei)
Last. Joel Alves Lamounier (UFSJ: Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei)H-Index: 4
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Objective To associate intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography to the factors related to metabolic syndrome and to determine cutoff points of intra-abdominal fat measurement associated with a greater chance of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, with 423 adolescents from public schools. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography. Anthropometric data were collected, and biochemical analyses were performed. Results Intra-...
#1Queiroz Machado (Federal Fluminense University)H-Index: 1
#3Cristina Pereira-Silva (Federal Fluminense University)H-Index: 1
Last. Fernandes-SantosH-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Objectives To investigate the early cardiometabolic abnormalities along with WAT and BAT remodeling in short-term fructose feeding mice model. Methods Mice (n=10-11/group) were fed for four weeks with control diet (AIN93-M) or experimental diets rich in glucose or fructose. We investigated body weight, body adiposity, blood glucose, lipid and hepatic parameters, and white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) histopathology. Results Fructose feeding promoted neither weight gain nor hyper...
1 CitationsSource
#1Cecília Maria Passos Vázquez (UFS: Universidade Federal de Sergipe)H-Index: 2
#2Jamille Oliveira Costa (UFS: Universidade Federal de Sergipe)H-Index: 3
Last. Kiriaque B. F. Barbosa (UFS: Universidade Federal de Sergipe)H-Index: 4
view all 11 authors...
Oxidative and inflammatory substances play an important role in the genesis of processes related to cardiometabolic risk. High levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and of triggering receptor-expressed myeloid cells (TREM-1) are associated with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluate the association of the plasma concentrations of Ox-LDL and serum levels of circulating TREM-1 (sTREM-1) with the components of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and other associat...
2 CitationsSource
Objective: The aim was to evaluate if maternal treatment with metformin (MET) during pregnancy and lactation could be safe for metabolic and cardiovascular parameters of adult male and female offspring.Materials and methods: Wistar female rats were treated with MET (293 mg/kg/d) or tap water, by gavage during gestation (METG or CTRG) or gestation and lactation (METGL or CTRGL).Results: At 75 days of life, male and female MET offspring presented similar blood pressure when compared with their CTR...
1 CitationsSource
#2José Geraldo MillH-Index: 36
Last. Mariadel C. B. MolinaH-Index: 17
view all 7 authors...
The secular trend of hyperuricemia coincides with the substantial increase in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the consumption of soft drinks, dietary fructose and unsweetened, non-processed fruit juices with hyperuricemia in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008–2010; n = 7173) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The explanatory variables were the consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and ...
5 CitationsSource
#1Barbara Perez VogtH-Index: 7
#2Jacqueline Costa Teixeira Caramori (UNESP: Sao Paulo State University)H-Index: 16
Evaluation of body fat and its distribution are important because they can predict several risk factors, mainly cardiovascular risk. Imaging techniques have high precision and accuracy for body fat measurement. However, trained personnel are required and the cost is high. Anthropometric indices might be used to evaluate body fat and its distribution in general population. In chronic kidney disease patients, studies have been indicating that overweight status improves survival rates. On the other...