Classifying previously undefined days from eleven years of aerosol-particle-size distribution data from the SMEAR II station, Hyytiälä, Finland

Published on Jul 4, 2008in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
· DOI :10.5194/acp-9-667-2009
S. Buenrostro Mazon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Helsinki),
Ilona Riipinen45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Helsinki)
+ 7 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki)
Abstract
Studies of secondary aerosol-particle formation depend on identifying days in which new particle formation occurs and, by comparing them to days with no signs of particle formation, identifying the conditions favourable for formation. Continuous aerosol size distribution data has been collected at the SMEAR II station in a boreal forest in Hyytiala, Finland, since 1996, making it the longest time series of aerosol size distributions available worldwide. In previous studies, the data have been classified as particle-formation event, nonevent, and undefined days, with almost 40% of the dataset classified as undefined. In the present study, eleven years (1996–2006) of undefined days (1630 days) were reanalyzed and subdivided into three new classes: failed events (37% of all previously undefined days), ultrafine-mode concentration peaks (34%), and pollution-related concentration peaks (19%). Unclassified days (10%) comprised the rest of the previously undefined days. The failed events were further subdivided into tail events (21%), where a tail of a formation event presumed to be advected to Hyytiala from elsewhere, and quasi events (16%) where new particles appeared at sizes 3–10 nm, but showed unclear growth, the mode persisted for less than an hour, or both. The ultrafine concentration peaks days were further subdivided into nucleation-mode peaks (24%) and Aitken-mode peaks (10%), depending on the size range where the particles occurred. The mean annual distribution of the failed events has a maximum during summer, whereas the two peak classes have maxima during winter. The summer minimum previously found in the seasonal distribution of event days partially offsets a summer maximum in failed-event days. Daily-mean relative humidity and condensation sink values are useful in discriminating the new classes from each other. Specifically, event days had low values of relative humidity and condensation sink relative to nonevent days. Failed-event days possessed intermediate condensation sink and relative humidity values, whereas both ultrafine-mode peaks and, to a greater extent, pollution-related peaks had high values of both, similar to nonevent days. Using 96-h back trajectories, particle-size concentrations were plotted as a function of time the trajectory spent over land. Increases in particle size and number concentration during failed-event days were similar to that during the later stages of event days, whereas the particle size and number concentration for both nonevent and peaks classes did not increase as fast as for event and failed events days.
  • References (20)
  • Citations (18)
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References20
Published on Sep 1, 2001in Tellus B 2.01
Pasi Aalto20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Helsinki),
Kaarle Hämeri45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Helsinki)
+ 11 AuthorsHans-Christen Hansson6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Stockholm University)
Particle concentrations and size distributions have been measured from different heights inside and above a boreal forest during three BIOFOR campaigns (14 April–22 May 1998, 27 July–21 August 1998 and 20 March–24 April 1999) in Hyytiala, Finland. Typically, the shape of the background distribution inside the forest exhibited 2 dominant modes: a fine or Aitken mode with a geometric number mean diameter of 44 nm and a mean concentration of 1160 cm −3 and an accumulation mode with mean diameter of...
272 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1990in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 7.80
David O. Blanchard2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract Mesoscale convective systems observed in the southern High Plains during the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-central (PRE-STORM) field program were analyzed using radar and rawinsonde data. Although radar data indicate that no two systems are identical, basic recurring mesoscale structures are evident. Based on these recurrent features, the systems have been classified into three types of mesoscale convective patterns: linear mesoscale systems, occluding mesosc...
36 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Tellus B 2.01
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki),
Anne Toivonen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Helsinki)
+ 1 AuthorsAri Laaksonen63
Estimated H-index: 63
Aerosol formation and subsequent particle growth in the ambient air have been frequently observed at a boreal forest site, Southern Finland. During a 1-year period we have observed significant aerosol formation on more than 50 days. Submicron aerosol size distributions have been measured using differential mobility analyzing technique. On several days, the growth of nucleation mode particles to Aitken mode has been observed to take place within ∼10 h subsequent to their formation at a rate of a ...
220 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 14, 2006in Science 41.06
Peter Tunved3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Hans-Christen Hansson39
Estimated H-index: 39
+ 7 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki)
Aerosols play a key role in the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Here, we present evidence that the European boreal region is a substantial source of both aerosol mass and aerosol number. The investigation supplies a straightforward relation between emissions of monoterpenes and gas-to-particle formation over regions substantially lacking in anthropogenic aerosol sources. Our results show that the forest provides an aerosol population of 1000 to 2000 particles of climatically active sizes pe...
328 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Journal of Geophysical Research 2.71
Peter H. McMurry79
Estimated H-index: 79
(University of Minnesota),
Melissa A. Fink2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Minnesota)
+ 11 AuthorsDavid J. Tanner47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
[1] A simple dimensionless parameter, L, is shown to determine whether or not new particle formation can occur in the atmosphere on a given day. The criterion accounts for the probability that clusters, formed by nucleation, will coagulate with preexisting particles before they grow to a detectable size. Data acquired in an intensive atmospheric measurement campaign in Atlanta, Georgia, during August 2002 (ANARChE) were used to test the validity of this criterion. Measurements included aerosol s...
152 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 5, 2007in Science 41.06
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki),
Ilona Riipinen45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Helsinki)
+ 14 AuthorsMarko Vana17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Tartu)
Atmospheric aerosol formation is known to occur almost all over the world, and the importance of these particles to climate and air quality has been recognized. Although almost all of the processes driving aerosol formation take place below a particle diameter of 3 nanometers, observations cover only larger particles. We introduce an instrumental setup to measure atmospheric concentrations of both neutral and charged nanometer-sized clusters. By applying the instruments in the field, we come to ...
323 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2007in Tellus B 2.01
Jost Heintzenberg50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Leibniz Association),
B. Wehner41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Leibniz Association),
W. Birmili45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Leibniz Association)
We have devised a new search algorithm for secondary particle formation events, or ‘nucleation events’ in data sets of atmospheric particle size distributions. The search algorithm is simple and based on the investigation of 18 integral parameters of the particle size distribution, three of which were found to be most relevant for identifying nucleation events. The algorithm is tested using long-term size distribution data sets of high-size resolution observed at Melpitz, Hohenpeissenberg, and L...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 2001in Tellus B 2.01
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki),
Kaarle Hämeri45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Helsinki)
+ 13 AuthorsWinfried Seidl9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Fraunhofer Society)
Aerosol formation and subsequent particle growth in ambient air have been frequently observed at a boreal forest site (SMEAR II station) in Southern Finland. The EU funded project BIOFOR (Biogenic aerosol formation in the boreal forest) has focused on: (a) determination of formation mechanisms of aerosol particles in the boreal forest site; (b) verification of emissions of secondary organic aerosols from the boreal forest site; and (c) quantification of the amount of condensable vapours produced...
287 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2000in Journal of Aerosol Science 2.28
J. M. Mäkelä37
Estimated H-index: 37
(University of Helsinki),
Ismo K. Koponen27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Helsinki)
+ 1 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki)
Number size distributions of submicron atmospheric aerosol were measured between February 1, 1996 and January 31, 1997 at a forest site in Southern Finland. Over 50,000 10-min spectra in the size range 3–500 nm were obtained by two parallel DMPSs. The spectra were fitted with two or three lognormal distributions. The occurrence and evolution of different size modes are described, and the seasonal variation of the modes are discussed. Particle formation with subsequent growth is observed to take ...
106 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 8, 2005in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
G. Allen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Leicester),
John J. Remedios30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Leicester),
K. M. Smith3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)
Laboratory absorption spectra of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH 3 C(O)OONO 2 ) vapour have been measured in the mid-infrared range 550 cm -1 to 1400 cm -1 (18.2 to 7.14 µm) at both 250 K and 273 K, using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at a nominal spectral resolution of 0.25 cm -1 (unapodised). In addition, the 1600 cm -1 to 2200 cm -1 (6.25 to 4.54 µm) spectral region has been measured at 250 K. Cross-sectional data at each temperature, as well as integrated band intensities and peak ...
20 Citations Source Cite
  • References (20)
  • Citations (18)
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Cited By18
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Advances in Meteorology 1.65
Sunmin Park2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of California, Riverside),
Hesham El-Askary17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Chapman University)
+ 4 AuthorsMenas Kafatos36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Chapman University)
We investigate the temporal characteristics of major air pollutants collected from 44 air quality stations over the city of Seoul, Korea, namely, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, particular matter at 10 microns, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) between 2000 and 2009. The corresponding satellite datasets, namely, aerosol optical depth (AODsat), Angstrom exponent, and fine mode fraction, collected from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) as well as the Aeronet ground aerosol optical de...
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Published on Sep 15, 2011in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
E. Asmi3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Blaise Pascal University),
Niku Kivekäs13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
+ 5 AuthorsHeikki Lihavainen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
Abstract. Secondary new particle formation affects atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplet numbers and thereby, the aerosol effects on climate. In this paper, the frequency of nucleation events and the associated particle formation and growth rates, along with their seasonal variation, was analysed based on over ten years of aerosol measurements conducted at the Pallas GAW station in northern Finland. The long-term measurements also allowed a detailed examination of factors possibly favouring or s...
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Published on Oct 30, 2009in Journal of Geophysical Research 2.71
Heikki Lihavainen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Finnish Meteorological Institute),
Peter Tunved21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Stockholm University)
+ 5 AuthorsYrjö Viisanen35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
By using a screened set of long-term aerosol measurement data, the contribution of natural boreal forest aerosols to the direct radiative effect (DRE) was observed at a remote continental site in n ...
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Published on Sep 1, 2012in Nature Protocols 12.42
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
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Tuukka Petäjä64
Estimated H-index: 64
+ 11 AuthorsPauli Paasonen23
Estimated H-index: 23
The formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles and their subsequent growth have been observed frequently at various locations all over the world. The atmospheric nucleation rate (or formation r ...
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Published on Oct 13, 2009in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki),
Ilona Riipinen45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Carnegie Mellon University)
+ 18 AuthorsPasi Aalto52
Estimated H-index: 52
(University of Helsinki)
Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative bal- ance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate pre- dictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cos- mic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driv- ing force behind ...
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Published on Jan 27, 2015in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
T. Nieminen20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Helsinki),
Taina Yli-Juuti16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Helsinki)
+ 3 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki)
Abstract. New particle formation (NPF) occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years, detailed laboratory experiments combined with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulfuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics, have been proposed. The instrumentation ...
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Johannes Größ7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Leibniz Association),
W. Birmili45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Leibniz Association)
+ 8 AuthorsUrmas Hõrrak20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Tartu)
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted Central European troposphere, focusing on the diurnal evolution of the meteorological and gas phase parameters involved. Atmospheric aerosol observations include Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements at the research station Melpitz, East Germany between 2008 and 2011. Particle formation events were classified by a new automated method based on the convolution integral of particle numbe...
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Published on Aug 28, 2012in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
Mikhail Paramonov5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Helsinki),
Tatu Anttila23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
+ 12 AuthorsTuukka Petäjä64
Estimated H-index: 64
(University of Helsinki)
This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The ...
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Published on May 15, 2009in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.51
Robin L. Modini8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Queensland University of Technology),
Zoran Ristovski40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Queensland University of Technology)
+ 5 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(University of Helsinki)
A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted in March/April 2007 at Agnes Water, a remote coastal site just south of the Great Barrier Reef on the east coast of Australia. Particle and ion size distributions were continuously measured during the campaign. Coastal nucleation events were observed in clean, marine air masses coming from the south-east on 65% of the days. The events usually began at ~10:00 local time and lasted for 1–4 h. They were characterised by the appearance of a n...
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Published on Oct 1, 2014in Atmospheric Environment 3.71
Vijay P. Kanawade16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur),
S. N. Tripathi35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)
+ 5 AuthorsVirendra Sethi12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Indian Institute of Technology Bombay)
Abstract While the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles and their subsequent growth have been observed under diverse environmental conditions globally, such observations are very scarce over Indian subcontinent. Here, we present the systematic analysis for new particle formation (NPF) from two distinct urban locations in India during April–May of two consecutive years. Particle size distributions were measured at Pune (18.53°N, 73.85°E) during 16 April–23 May, 2012 and at Kanpur (26.46...
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