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Classifying previously undefined days from eleven years of aerosol-particle-size distribution data from the SMEAR II station, Hyytiälä, Finland

Published on Jul 4, 2008in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
· DOI :10.5194/acp-9-667-2009
S. Buenrostro Mazon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Ilona Riipinen45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 7 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UH: University of Helsinki)
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Abstract
Studies of secondary aerosol-particle formation depend on identifying days in which new particle formation occurs and, by comparing them to days with no signs of particle formation, identifying the conditions favourable for formation. Continuous aerosol size distribution data has been collected at the SMEAR II station in a boreal forest in Hyytiala, Finland, since 1996, making it the longest time series of aerosol size distributions available worldwide. In previous studies, the data have been classified as particle-formation event, nonevent, and undefined days, with almost 40% of the dataset classified as undefined. In the present study, eleven years (1996–2006) of undefined days (1630 days) were reanalyzed and subdivided into three new classes: failed events (37% of all previously undefined days), ultrafine-mode concentration peaks (34%), and pollution-related concentration peaks (19%). Unclassified days (10%) comprised the rest of the previously undefined days. The failed events were further subdivided into tail events (21%), where a tail of a formation event presumed to be advected to Hyytiala from elsewhere, and quasi events (16%) where new particles appeared at sizes 3–10 nm, but showed unclear growth, the mode persisted for less than an hour, or both. The ultrafine concentration peaks days were further subdivided into nucleation-mode peaks (24%) and Aitken-mode peaks (10%), depending on the size range where the particles occurred. The mean annual distribution of the failed events has a maximum during summer, whereas the two peak classes have maxima during winter. The summer minimum previously found in the seasonal distribution of event days partially offsets a summer maximum in failed-event days. Daily-mean relative humidity and condensation sink values are useful in discriminating the new classes from each other. Specifically, event days had low values of relative humidity and condensation sink relative to nonevent days. Failed-event days possessed intermediate condensation sink and relative humidity values, whereas both ultrafine-mode peaks and, to a greater extent, pollution-related peaks had high values of both, similar to nonevent days. Using 96-h back trajectories, particle-size concentrations were plotted as a function of time the trajectory spent over land. Increases in particle size and number concentration during failed-event days were similar to that during the later stages of event days, whereas the particle size and number concentration for both nonevent and peaks classes did not increase as fast as for event and failed events days.
  • References (20)
  • Citations (19)
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References20
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2008in Tellus B 2.23
Larisa Sogacheva19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UH: University of Helsinki),
L. Saukkonen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Finnish Meteorological Institute)
+ 4 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UH: University of Helsinki)
We examine the meteorological conditions favourable for new particle formation as a contribution to clarifying the responsible processes. Synoptic weather maps and satellite images over Southern Finland for 2003–2005 were examined, focusing mainly on air mass types, atmospheric frontal passages, and cloudiness. Arctic air masses are most favourable for new aerosol particle formation in the boreal forest. New particle formation tends to occur on days after passage of a cold front and on days with...
25 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 5, 2007in Science 41.04
Markku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Ilona Riipinen45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 14 AuthorsMarko Vana17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UT: University of Tartu)
Atmospheric aerosol formation is known to occur almost all over the world, and the importance of these particles to climate and air quality has been recognized. Although almost all of the processes driving aerosol formation take place below a particle diameter of 3 nanometers, observations cover only larger particles. We introduce an instrumental setup to measure atmospheric concentrations of both neutral and charged nanometer-sized clusters. By applying the instruments in the field, we come to ...
324 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2007in Tellus B 2.23
Jost Heintzenberg51
Estimated H-index: 51
(Leibniz Association),
B. Wehner41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Leibniz Association),
W. Birmili41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Leibniz Association)
We have devised a new search algorithm for secondary particle formation events, or ‘nucleation events’ in data sets of atmospheric particle size distributions. The search algorithm is simple and based on the investigation of 18 integral parameters of the particle size distribution, three of which were found to be most relevant for identifying nucleation events. The algorithm is tested using long-term size distribution data sets of high-size resolution observed at Melpitz, Hohenpeissenberg, and L...
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 14, 2006in Science 41.04
Peter Tunved4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Hans-Christen Hansson47
Estimated H-index: 47
+ 7 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UH: University of Helsinki)
Aerosols play a key role in the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Here, we present evidence that the European boreal region is a substantial source of both aerosol mass and aerosol number. The investigation supplies a straightforward relation between emissions of monoterpenes and gas-to-particle formation over regions substantially lacking in anthropogenic aerosol sources. Our results show that the forest provides an aerosol population of 1000 to 2000 particles of climatically active sizes pe...
331 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 29, 2005in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Saara Hyvönen3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Helsinki Institute for Information Technology),
Heikki Junninen44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 11 AuthorsToivo Pohja17
Estimated H-index: 17
Atmospheric aerosol particle formation is fre- quently observed throughout the atmosphere, but despite var- ious attempts of explanation, the processes behind it remain unclear. In this study data mining techniques were used to find the key parameters needed for atmospheric aerosol par- ticle formation to occur. A dataset of 8 years of 80 vari- ables collected at the boreal forest station (SMEAR II) in Southern Finland was used, incorporating variables such as radiation, humidity, SO2, ozone and...
70 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 8, 2005in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Grant Allen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Leicester),
John J. Remedios24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Leicester),
K. M. Smith3
Estimated H-index: 3
(RAL: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)
Laboratory absorption spectra of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH 3 C(O)OONO 2 ) vapour have been measured in the mid-infrared range 550 cm -1 to 1400 cm -1 (18.2 to 7.14 µm) at both 250 K and 273 K, using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at a nominal spectral resolution of 0.25 cm -1 (unapodised). In addition, the 1600 cm -1 to 2200 cm -1 (6.25 to 4.54 µm) spectral region has been measured at 250 K. Cross-sectional data at each temperature, as well as integrated band intensities and peak ...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Boreal Environment Research 1.46
Yulia S. Lyubovtseva2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Larisa Sogacheva19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 3 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
The data from observations made in the Hyytiala background station over the period 1997-2003 were analyzed in order to investigate the possible links between physical, chemical and meteorological parameters for event and nonevent days during different seasons. The seasonal patterns of average trace gas (O 3 , H 2 O, NO = NO + NO 2 , SO,) concentrations, UV-A irradiation intensity, temperature, relative humidity and condensation sink were established and used for evaluating their influence on the...
50 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Boreal Environment Research 1.46
Anne Hirsikko22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Lauri Laakso34
Estimated H-index: 34
+ 3 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
Number size distributions of particles and ions were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer and two different ion spectrometers at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland during April 2003-April 2004. Cluster ion (diameter < 1.6 nm) concentrations varied between 200 and 1500 cm -1 , while the concentrations of intermediated ions (1.6-6.3 nm) remained usually below 200 cm -3 . During the 70 observed nucleation event days, particle growth rates were strongly dependent on their size....
139 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Boreal Environment Research 1.46
Larisa Sogacheva19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
M. Dal Maso44
Estimated H-index: 44
+ 1 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
The probability of a new ultrafine particle formation as well as the spatial sources of the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes of particles measured in Hyytiala, southern Finland, were investigated using air mass history analysis. The studied period covered the years 1997-2003. We estimated the probability of a new ultrafine particle formation for nine sub-areas inside a domain limited by 50°N-80°N in latitude and 30°W-60°E in longitude. For all the seasons North Atlantic and arctic regio...
58 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Journal of Geophysical Research 3.23
Peter H. McMurry80
Estimated H-index: 80
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Melissa A. Fink2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
+ 11 AuthorsDavid J. Tanner47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
[1] A simple dimensionless parameter, L, is shown to determine whether or not new particle formation can occur in the atmosphere on a given day. The criterion accounts for the probability that clusters, formed by nucleation, will coagulate with preexisting particles before they grow to a detectable size. Data acquired in an intensive atmospheric measurement campaign in Atlanta, Georgia, during August 2002 (ANARChE) were used to test the validity of this criterion. Measurements included aerosol s...
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Published on Sep 27, 2018in Environmental Research Letters 6.19
V.M. Kerminen52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Veli-Matti Kerminen (UH: University of Helsinki)+ 3 AuthorsFederico Bianchi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Huada: Beijing University of Chemical Technology)
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Published on Sep 3, 2018in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Katri Leino2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Janne Lampilahti3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 20 AuthorsPasi Aalto52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UH: University of Helsinki)
Abstract. This work presents airborne observations of sub-3 nm particles in the lower troposphere and investigates new particle formation (NPF) within an evolving boundary layer (BL). We studied particle concentrations together with supporting gas and meteorological data inside the planetary BL over a boreal forest site in Hyytiala, southern Finland. The analysed data were collected during three flight measurement campaigns: May–June 2015, August 2015 and April–May 2017, including 27 morning and...
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Published on Aug 9, 2018in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Lubna Dada4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Robert Chellapermal1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 7 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(Huada: Beijing University of Chemical Technology)
Abstract. Atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF) is a worldwide-observed phenomenon that affects the human health and the global climate. With a growing network of global atmospheric measurement stations, efforts towards investigating NPF have increased. In this study, we present an automated method to classify days into four categories including NPF events, non-events and two classes in between, which then ensures reproducibility and minimizes the hours spent on manual classification. We appl...
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Published on Feb 8, 2018in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Johannes Größ7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Leibniz Association),
A. Hamed17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Eastern Finland)
+ 8 AuthorsC. Plass-Dülmer28
Estimated H-index: 28
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted Central European troposphere, focusing on the connection with gas-phase precursors and meteorological parameters. Observations were made at the research station Melpitz (former East Germany) between 2008 and 2011 involving a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS). Particle formation events were classified by a new automated method based on the convolution integral of particle number concentration in...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 31, 2018in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Luciana V. Rizzo22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UNIFESP: Federal University of São Paulo),
Pontus Roldin13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Lund University)
+ 7 AuthorsPaulo Artaxo84
Estimated H-index: 84
(USP: University of São Paulo)
Abstract. The Amazon Basin is a unique region to study atmospheric aerosols, given their relevance for the regional hydrological cycle and the large uncertainty of their sources. Multi-year datasets are crucial when contrasting periods of natural conditions and periods influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In the wet season, biogenic sources and processes prevail, and the Amazonian atmospheric composition resembles preindustrial conditions. In the dry season, the basin is influenced by widespre...
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Published on Oct 19, 2016in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Lubna Dada4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Pauli Paasonen24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 9 AuthorsV.M. Kerminen52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UH: University of Helsinki)
Abstract. New particle formation (NPF) events have been observed all around the world and are known to be a major source of atmospheric aerosol particles. Here we combine 20 years of observations in a boreal forest at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) in Hyytiala, Finland, by building on previously accumulated knowledge and by focusing on clear-sky (noncloudy) conditions. We first investigated the effect of cloudiness on NPF and then compared the NPF eve...
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Published on Jul 18, 2016in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Riikka Väänänen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Radovan Krejci30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 14 AuthorsAri Asmi21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UH: University of Helsinki)
Abstract. This study explores the vertical and horizontal variability of the particle number size distribution from two flight measurements campaigns over a boreal forest in Hyytiala, Finland during May–June 2013 and March–April 2014, respectively. Our other aims were to study the spatial extent of new particle formation events and to compare the airborne observation with the ground measurements from the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) field station located in Hyy...
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Published on Jan 1, 2016in Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2.73
Xiaojing Shen9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Junying Sun7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 8 AuthorsYong Zhao1
Estimated H-index: 1
Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is an important variable for evaluating the effect of aerosols on climate. In this study, the PNSD in the size range of 3 nm–2.5 µm was measured over a 20-month period at Mt. Tai station, located at ~1500 m asl. in central east China (CEC). The mean particle number concentrations in the nucleation (Nnuc, 3–25 nm), Aitken (NAit, 25–100 nm), accumulation modes (Nacc, 100–1000 nm) and in total measured particle size range were 3200 cm –3 , 5200 cm –3 , 3400 ...
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 27, 2015in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
T. Nieminen20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Taina Yli-Juuti16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UH: University of Helsinki)
+ 3 AuthorsMarkku Kulmala112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UH: University of Helsinki)
Abstract. New particle formation (NPF) occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years, detailed laboratory experiments combined with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulfuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics, have been proposed. The instrumentation ...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 23, 2015in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5.67
Johannes Größ7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Leibniz Association),
W. Birmili41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Leibniz Association)
+ 8 AuthorsUrmas Hõrrak20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UT: University of Tartu)
This paper revisits the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process in the polluted Central European troposphere, focusing on the diurnal evolution of the meteorological and gas phase parameters involved. Atmospheric aerosol observations include Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements at the research station Melpitz, East Germany between 2008 and 2011. Particle formation events were classified by a new automated method based on the convolution integral of particle numbe...
8 Citations Source Cite