Match!

Fish Oil Replacement in Current Aquaculture Feed: Is Cholesterol a Hidden Treasure for Fish Nutrition?

Published on Dec 4, 2013in PLOS ONE2.776
· DOI :10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0081705
Fernando Norambuena15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Deakin University),
Michael J. Lewis3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Deakin University)
+ 3 AuthorsGiovanni M. Turchini37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Deakin University)
Abstract
Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid b-oxidation were recorded, whilst in LChol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid b-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid D-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations.
  • References (53)
  • Citations (49)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
47.7k Citations
609 Citations
136 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References53
Newest
#1Nina S. Liland (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 12
#2Marit Espe (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 30
Last. Bente E. Torstensen (NIN: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)H-Index: 37
view all 8 authors...
Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant...
30 CitationsSource
#1Junming Deng (Yunnan Agricultural University)H-Index: 7
#2Baoliang Bi (Yunnan Agricultural University)H-Index: 6
Last. Xiaodong Zhang (Yunnan Agricultural University)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation at different levels (0, 0·3, 0·6, 0·9, 1·2 and 1·5 %) on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) fed soyabean meal (SBM)-based diets. Daily growth coefficient (DGC) steadily increased when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1·2 %, but declined upon further addition. The total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) l...
18 CitationsSource
#1James A. Emery (Deakin University)H-Index: 8
#2Karen Hermon (Deakin University)H-Index: 10
Last. Giovanni M. Turchini (Deakin University)H-Index: 37
view all 5 authors...
It is generally accepted that, in vertebrates, omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compete for Δ-6 desaturase enzyme in order to be bioconverted into long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA). However, recent studies into teleost fatty acid metabolism suggest that these metabolic processes may not conform entirely to what has been previously observed in mammals and other animal models. Recent work on rainbow trout has led us to question specifically if linoleic acid (LA, 18∶2n-6)...
31 CitationsSource
#1Fernando Norambuena (Deakin University)H-Index: 15
#2Sofia MoraisH-Index: 32
Last. Neil DuncanH-Index: 21
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Previous studies have shown higher levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) in testis, liver, and muscle of wild Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) compared to fish reared in captivity (first generation, G1). The present study was conducted to establish the optimal level of dietary ARA for G1 Senegalese sole broodstock, using as a reference the fatty acid profile of wild broodstock (gonads, liver and muscle). A total of 120 Senegalese sole broodstock were randomly distributed into ...
31 CitationsSource
#1Junming Deng (Yunnan Agricultural University)H-Index: 7
#2Bin Kang (Yunnan University)H-Index: 3
Last. Xiaodong Zhang (Yunnan Agricultural University)H-Index: 4
view all 5 authors...
Abstract This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally in...
57 CitationsSource
#1Biao Yun (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 3
#2Kangsen Mai (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 47
Last. Wei Xu (Ocean University of China)H-Index: 37
view all 4 authors...
Abstract A 9-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth performance, feed intake and cholesterol metabolism of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed high plant protein diets. A fish meal diet (diet FM) with 58% FM was formulated, and this diet was used as control. The other four diets were formulated to contain 14.5% FM, 42.0% soybean meal (SBM), and 18.5% wheat gluten meal. The four diets were supplemented with 0.0%, 0.5%...
62 CitationsSource
#1Marie Vagner ('IFREMER': IFREMER)H-Index: 8
#2Ester Santigosa ('IFREMER': IFREMER)H-Index: 4
Abstract There is currently considerable interest in understanding how the biosynthetic pathways of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) are regulated in fish. The aim is to know if it is possible to replace fish oils (FO), rich in HUFA, by vegetable oils (VO), poor in HUFA and rich in their 18 carbon fatty acid precursors, in the feed of cultured fish species of commercial importance. Thus many studies have focussed on delta-6 desaturase (∆6D) since it is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in H...
113 CitationsSource
#1Yngvar Olsen (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 47
There is a growing concern about the ability to produce enough nutritious food to feed the global human population in this century. Environmental conflicts and a limited freshwater supply constrain further developments in agriculture; global fisheries have levelled off, and aquaculture may have to play a more prominent role in supplying human food. Freshwater is important, but it is also a major challenge to cultivate the oceans in an environmentally, economically and energy- friendly way. To su...
80 CitationsSource
#1J BellH-Index: 1
#2Wolfgang KoppeH-Index: 1
29 CitationsSource
#1Audrey Extier (INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)H-Index: 6
#2Bénédicte Langelier (INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)H-Index: 14
Last. Jean-Marc Alessandri (INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)H-Index: 21
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Dietary n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membranes and have beneficial effects on human health. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n−3) is the most biologically important n−3 PUFA and can be synthesized from its dietary essential precursor, α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n−3). Gender differences in the efficiency of DHA bioconversion have been reported, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. We compared the capacity for DHA synthesis from ALA and the...
63 CitationsSource
Cited By49
Newest
#1Xing-Wei Liu (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 3
#2Lin Feng (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 40
Last. Xiao-Qiu Zhou (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 41
view all 11 authors...
Abstract High-quality flesh plays crucial roles in affecting the acceptance and market value of the fish products. In previous study, (2-carboxyethyl)dimethylsulfonium Bromide (Br-DMPT) supplementation enhanced the growth and digestive capacity of fish fed non-fish meal diet, whereas its impacts on fish flesh quality remain unknown. Here, we examined whether dietary supplementation with Br-DMPT could improve muscle nutritive value, flesh flavor, healthy fatty, acids physical properties and antio...
Source
The vast majority of the world’s fishery by-products are utilized in the fish farming industry. However, due to the high cost and unsustainability of these by-products, alternative sources must be found. Marine diatoms produce important amounts of fatty acids, sterols, proteins and carbohydrates. In this work, we assessed the nutritional value of Halamphora coffeaeformis at the exponential growth phase, to determine its suitability for aquafeed. The strain was grown in a photobioreactor at 20 °C...
Source
#2Dariel Tovar-Ramírez (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 16
Last. Bartolo Concha-FríasH-Index: 2
view all 9 authors...
Source
#1Megan M. Kemski (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 5
#2Chad A. Rappleye (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 24
Last. Macdonald Wick (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 14
view all 5 authors...
With increasing levels of fish meal (FM) protein in aquafeeds being replaced with soybean meal (SBM) protein, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in response to alternative diets has become a critical concern. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine transcriptional differences in the intestine of juvenile yellow perch through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), after their initial introduction to a formulated diet with 75% SBM protein inclusion for 61 days, compared to those fed a traditio...
Source
#1María Delfina Almeyda (UNS: Universidad Nacional del Sur)H-Index: 1
#2Paola Scodelaro Bilbao (UNS: Universidad Nacional del Sur)H-Index: 8
Last. Patricia I. Leonardi (UNS: Universidad Nacional del Sur)H-Index: 14
view all 5 authors...
Marine microalgae synthetize great amounts of essential metabolites such as fatty acids and amino acids. In addition, their exposure to stress factors can induce the overproduction of these desirable metabolites. Thus, in this work, we assessed the effect of low-temperature stress on lipid production and composition of the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, in order to evaluate its potential as an alternative feedstock of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The alga was first cultured i...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sean M. Tibbetts (National Research Council)H-Index: 15
#2Shane Patelakis (National Research Council)H-Index: 1
Last. Scott P. MacQuarrie (National Research Council)H-Index: 9
view all 6 authors...
Pavlova sp. 459 has been used as a high-quality liquid live-feed for cultivated bivalves, while this is its first evaluation as a low-trophic dry aquafeed ingredient. Pav459 was batch-cultivated in photobioreactors and prepared as an intact-cell meal (direct freeze-drying) and a cell-ruptured meal (freeze-drying following microfluidic high-pressure homogenization) and evaluated for nutritional characteristics relevant for salmonid aquafeeds. Protein quality was based on essential amino acid (EAA...
1 CitationsSource
#1Aida Aimeé Garcia-Organista (UABC: Autonomous University of Baja California)
#2José Antonio Mata-Sotres (UABC: Autonomous University of Baja California)H-Index: 5
Last. Artur N. Rombenso (UABC: Autonomous University of Baja California)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methionine and taurine supplementation (individually or in combination at individual levels of 10 g/kg) on growth performance and lipid metabolism in juvenile California Yellowtail. A total of 4 dietary treatments were designed as CONTROL, MET, TAU and MET+TAU. After 6 weeks, production performance was significantly increased by dietary taurine and no synergetic effect of dietary taurine-methionine was noticed. Supplementation of m...
Source
#1Thomas S. Mock (Deakin University)H-Index: 2
#2David S. Francis (Deakin University)H-Index: 25
Last. Giovanni M. Turchini (Deakin University)H-Index: 37
view all 6 authors...
A more efficient utilisation of marine-derived sources of dietary n -3 long-chain PUFA ( n -3 LC PUFA) in cultured Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) could be achieved by nutritional strategies that maximise endogenous n -3 LC PUFA synthesis. The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of n -3 LC PUFA biosynthesis and the resultant effect on fillet nutritional quality in large fish. Four diets were manufactured, providing altered levels of dietary n -3 substrate, namely, 18 : 3 ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Tomer Katan (MUN: Memorial University of Newfoundland)H-Index: 4
#2Albert Caballero-Solares (MUN: Memorial University of Newfoundland)H-Index: 6
Last. Christopher C. Parrish (MUN: Memorial University of Newfoundland)H-Index: 43
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Little is known about how variation in omega-6 to omega-3 (ω6:ω3) fatty acid (FA) ratios affects lipid metabolism and eicosanoid synthesis in salmon, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The current study examined the impact of five plant-based diets (12-week exposure) with varying ω6:ω3 (0.3–2.7) on the growth, tissue lipid composition (muscle and liver), and hepatic transcript expression of lipid metabolism and eicosanoid synthesis-related genes in Atlantic salmon. Growt...
4 CitationsSource
#1Huai-Mao Tie (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 1
#2Pei Wu (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 29
Last. Lin Feng (Sichuan Agricultural University)H-Index: 40
view all 10 authors...
Abstract A 60 days feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides levels on growth performance, proximate composition, physicochemical properties, amino acids constituents, fatty acids composition, apoptosis and antioxidant status related mechanism of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (initial weight: 200.00 ± 1.00 g). Six graded levels of dietary nucleotides were designed as 0, 200.0, 400.0, 600.0, 800.0 and 1000.0 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed that, ...
15 CitationsSource