Match!

Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review

Published on Aug 1, 2004in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.006
· DOI :10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022
Sara A. Burt15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UU: Utrecht University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 μl ml−1. Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05–5 μl ml−1 in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5–20 μl g−1 in foods and about 0.1–10 μl ml−1 in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.
Figures & Tables
  • References (177)
  • Citations (5507)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
530 Citations
699 Citations
1,675 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References177
Newest
#1M. Shafiur RahmanH-Index: 1
Part A: Preservation of Fresh Food Products Food Preservation: an Overview, Dr. M.S. Rahman Postharvest Physiology of Fruits and Vegetables, Dr V. K. Mishra and Dr. T. V. Gamage Postharvest Handling and Treatments of Fruits and Vegetables, Dr V. K. Mishra and Dr. T. V. Gamage Post-Harvest Handling of Grains and Pulses, Dr. Y. Lan and Dr. A. K Mahapatra Minimal Processing of Fruits and Vegetables, Dr. C.O. Perera Postharvest Handling and Preservation of Fish and Seafood, Dr. L.Opara, Dr. S. M. Al...
416 CitationsSource
#1Michael P. DoyleH-Index: 69
#2Robert L. BuchananH-Index: 46
Factors of Special Significance to Food Microbiology Microbial Spoilage of Foods Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Mycotoxigenic Molds Viruses Foodborne and Waterborne Parasites Preservatives and Preservation Methods Food Fermentations Advanced Techniques in Food Microbiology Index
1,665 Citations
#1Larry R. Beuchat (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 78
The effects of 13 dried spices added to growth media at concentrations ranging from 0.l–1.0% were studied with respect to their bactericidal activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Rates of growth of V. parahaernolyticus in culture media containing essential oils of oregano, thyme, and sassafras and in media containing citric, ascorbic, and malic acids were determined. Survival of the organism in tomato sauce adjusted to pH 4.4–6.5 and incubated at 10, 22 and 35°C were examined. Dried oregano ...
83 CitationsSource
#1Montse Mari (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 26
#2Paolo Bertolini (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 17
Last. G.C. Pratella (UNIBO: University of Bologna)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
: Pears are highly perishable products, especially during the post-harvest phase, when considerable losses can occur. Among the fungal diseases, blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum, grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea, Mucor rot caused by Mucor piriformis are common on pear fruits. Other (weak) pathogens like Phialophora malorum, Alternaria spp., and Cladosporium herbarum tend to infect wounds and senescent fruits. A post-harvest fungicide treatment can reduce decay but effectiveness decr...
118 CitationsSource
2,219 CitationsSource
#1Sara A. Burt (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 15
#2R.D. Reinders (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 2
Aims: To quantify the antibacterial properties of five essential oils (EO) on a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence and absence of a stabilizer and an emulsifier and at three different temperatures. Methods and Results: Five EOs known to exhibit antibacterial properties were screened by disc diffusion assay and the most active were selected for further study in microdilution colorimetric assays. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris; light and red var...
537 CitationsSource
#1S. HarpazH-Index: 2
#2L. GlatmanH-Index: 7
Last. A. GelmanH-Index: 9
view all 4 authors...
Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2°C. Essential oils of herbs—thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)—added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential o...
160 CitationsSource
The use of multiple freeze (−20°C)–thaw cycles in combination with isoeugenol and polysorbate 80 was investigated as a method for the reduction of numbers of Listeria monocytogenes cells in a bacteriological medium. Three freeze (1 h, −20°C)–thaw cycles in the presence of isoeugenol at concentrations of 0, 100, and 300 ppm resulted in average L. monocytogenes reductions of 0.69, 2.65, and 3.3 log10 MPN (most probable number) per ml, respectively. Increasing the number of freeze–thaw cycles furth...
45 CitationsSource
#1Dimitra Daferera (AUA: Agricultural University of Athens)H-Index: 33
#2Basil N. Ziogas (AUA: Agricultural University of Athens)H-Index: 18
Last. Moschos G. Polissiou (AUA: Agricultural University of Athens)H-Index: 48
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Oregano, thyme, dictamnus, marjoram, lavender, rosemary, sage and pennyroyal essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against Botrytis cinerea , Fusarium sp. ( Fusarium solani var. coeruleum ), and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis on artificial growth media. The chemical composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth of Botrytis cinerea , Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was comple...
449 CitationsSource
#1Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé (UO: University of Ouagadougou)H-Index: 15
#2Aboubakar S. Ouattara (UO: University of Ouagadougou)H-Index: 13
Last. S. A. Traore (UO: University of Ouagadougou)H-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
The chemical composition of the essential oils of Lippia chevalieri and Lippia multiflora obtained from the air-dried leaves by hydrodistillation were analysed using GC and GC-MS. L. chevalieri and L. multiflora belonged to thymol/p-cymene/2-phenyl ethyl propionate and thymol/p-cymene/thymyl acetate chemotypes, respectively. The essential oils were also tested against 09 strains using a broth microdilution method. The Gram-negative bacteria were the most sensitive. The essential oil of L. multif...
104 CitationsSource
Cited By5507
Newest
Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens L. (jimsonweed) (Pf) isolate and the two plant extracts, Datura stramonium and Myrtus communis, were investigated on hatching and juvenile (J2s) mortality of Meloidogyne javanica(Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) under laboratory conditions. After determining the values of LC30, LC50, and LC70 of each extract, four leaf stage seedlings of tomato were treated by 20 ml of Pf suspension at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml, using a soil drenching method. After 1 week, the te...
Source
#1Martina D. Allenspach (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 2
#1Martina D. Allenspach (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 1
Last. Christian Steuer (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 3
view all 3 authors...
A simple, robust, and precise method for the absolute quantification of the terpenes α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, bornyl acetate, β-caryophyllene, and borneol was developed using gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and validated according to the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. The GC-FID method shows high accuracy (91–105%) and low imprecision (< 7.6%) for all terpenes at qual...
Source
#1Marjan Majdinasab (Shiraz University)H-Index: 8
#2Mehrdad Niakousari (Shiraz University)H-Index: 17
Last. Hamed Dehghani (Shiraz University)
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of antimicrobial and antioxidant coatings based on basil-seed gum (BSG) on the refrigerated shelf-life of chicken fillets. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties were developed by incorporating summer savory essential oil (SEO) and Shirazi thyme essential oil (TEO) emulsions, individually or in combination with each other, into BSG coating. Microbiological evaluations including total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophic (PBC) and l...
Source
#1G.Y.Y. Faria (University of Rio Grande)
#2M.M. Souza (University of Rio Grande)
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The effect of the glow discharge cold plasma pretreatment (CPT) was investigated on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from sea asparagus Salicornia neei. The extract was applied in dry fermented sausage (Italian salami). Thermal extraction methods demand a long processing time, are highly energy-consuming and cause irreversible nutrient losses. It was found that CPT (discharge power of 14 W for 5 min) prior to UAE increased the antioxidant activity by 22% an...
Source
#1Anis Asyila Marzlan (UPM: Universiti Putra Malaysia)
#2Belal J. Muhialdin (UPM: Universiti Putra Malaysia)H-Index: 6
Last. Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin (UPM: Universiti Putra Malaysia)H-Index: 11
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Natural preservatives derived from plant sources have been actively studied as an alternative to synthetic materials. Various extraction methods had been done to utilize the torch ginger plant for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC−CO2) extraction is a sustainable green technology to extract high-purity oil with high aromatic compound content. This study aims to optimize the SC−CO2 extraction conditions on high yield and strong antioxid...
Source
#1Mehdi Mehran (University of Kashan)H-Index: 1
#2Saeed Masoum (University of Kashan)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The aim of this study was to optimize microencapsulation conditions of spearmint essential oil (SEO) by spray drying, using a blend of inulin and gum Arabic as wall material. The oil retention, encapsulation efficacy, hygroscopicity, and carvone content were investigated with respect to three variables, including total solid content (x1), oil concentration (x2) and inlet air temperature (x3) via response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were (35 % solid wall, 4% essenti...
Source
#1Kanika Sharma (Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Sanjay Guleria (Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology)H-Index: 14
Last. Vikash Babu (CSIR: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Regardless of the well-known antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oils, requirement of their large doses is the major bottleneck in using them as food preservatives. In the present study, possible synergistic interactions on antioxidant and antibacterial capacity of essential oils from six selected medicinal plants namely Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet, Ocimum gratissimum L., Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor. (Citronella java), Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Ste...
Source
#2Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian (Sejong University)H-Index: 5
Last. Mariadhas Valan Arasu (KSU: King Saud University)H-Index: 26
view all 5 authors...
Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the crop protection properties of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Cinnamomum loureirii and Evolvulus alsinoides against food spoilage fungi and insects. Hydrodistillation method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry analysis authenticated the presence of twenty three compounds from C. loureirii including, cinnamaldehyde (74.31 %), linalool (1.72 %), camphor (1.3 %), borneol (1.25 %) and bisabolol (1.31 %) and twenty compounds from E. alsin...
Source
#1L. M. Wang (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 2
#2Shiqi Huang (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 4
Last. Benjamin M. Bohrer (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 8
view all 6 authors...
Abstract The effects of feeding essential oils and(or) benzoic acid to finishing steers on fatty acid profile and oxidative stability (color and lipid oxidation) of beef longissimus thoracis steaks and ground beef was determined in this study. Beef was procured from crossbred beef steers (n = 63) fed one of five dietary treatments: (1) control (no antibiotics fed); (2) monensin/tylosin (monensin supplemented at 33 mg/kg [DM basis]; tylosin supplemented at 11 mg/kg [DM basis]); (3) essential oils...
Source
#1Mingming Guo (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 5
#2Lianjiao Zhang (ZJU: Zhejiang University)
Last. Donghong Liu (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 38
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Essential oil nanoemulsions have been proven to have stronger antimicrobial effects compared to the essential oil alone or coarse emulsion. Sonoporation could be the promising candidate to trigger a synergistic effect with thyme essential oil nanoemulsion (TEON) and produce a more effective antibacterial efficacy. Therefore, in this study, the bactericidal effects of ultrasound (US) in combination with TEON treatments against Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 were investigated. The rem...
Source