Match!

Diel vertical migration of Arctic zooplankton during the polar night

Published on Feb 23, 2009in Biology Letters3.323
· DOI :10.1098/rsbl.2008.0484
Jørgen Berge30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Finlo Cottier25
Estimated H-index: 25
+ 11 AuthorsAndrew S. Brierley40
Estimated H-index: 40
(St And: University of St Andrews)
Abstract
High-latitude environments show extreme seasonal variation in physical and biological variables. The classic paradigm of Arctic marine ecosystems holds that most biological processes slow down or cease during the polar night. One key process that is generally assumed to cease during winter is diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton. DVM constitutes the largest synchronized movement of biomass on the planet, and is of paramount importance for marine ecosystem function and carbon cycling. Here we present acoustic data that demonstrate a synchronized DVM behaviour of zooplankton that continues throughout the Arctic winter, in both open and ice-covered waters. We argue that even during the polar night, DVM is regulated by diel variations in solar and lunar illumination, which are at intensities far below the threshold of human perception. We also demonstrate that winter DVM is stronger in open waters compared with ice-covered waters. This suggests that the biologically mediated vertical flux of carbon will increase if there is a continued retreat of the Arctic winter sea ice cover.
  • References (17)
  • Citations (94)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
67 Citations
1 Author (Graeme C. Hays)
395 Citations
77 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References17
Newest
#1Stig Falk-Petersen (Norwegian College of Fishery Science)H-Index: 53
#2Eva Leu (NPI: Norwegian Polar Institute)H-Index: 19
Last. Bjørn Gulliksen (Norwegian College of Fishery Science)H-Index: 32
view all 11 authors...
Abstract The diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton and pelagic fish in the southern Arctic Ocean (82°N) and in Rijpfjorden (Svalbard, Nordaustlandet, 80°N) was investigated in autumn 2004, when there were distinct differences in light conditions between day and night. We collected data on zooplankton and fish distribution using plankton nets, trawls, and an echo sounder together with data on environmental parameters including sea-ice distribution, hydrography, and in situ fluorescence in ...
49 CitationsSource
#1Rana A. Fine (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 36
#2William M. Smethie (LDEO: Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory)H-Index: 42
Last. Ray F. Weiss (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 71
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrographic data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean expedition are used to evaluate contributions to decadal ventilation of water masses. At a given density, CFC-derived ages increase and concentrations decrease from the south to north, with lowest concentrations and oldest ages in Bay of Bengal. Average ages for thermocline water are 0–40 years, and for intermediate water they are less than 10 years to more than 40 years. As co...
42 CitationsSource
#1J. Ringelberg (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 1
Many pelagic animal species in the marine environment and in lakes migrate to deeper water layers before sunrise and return around sunset. The amplitude of these diel vertical migrations (DVM) varies from several hundreds of metres in the oceans to approx. 5-20 m in lakes. DVM can be studied from a proximate and an ultimate point of view. A proximate analysis is intended to reveal the underlying behavioural mechanism and the factors that cause the daily displacements. The ultimate analysis deals...
120 CitationsSource
#1Finlo Cottier (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 25
#2Geraint A. Tarling (NERC: Natural Environment Research Council)H-Index: 36
Last. Stig Falk-Petersen (NPI: Norwegian Polar Institute)H-Index: 53
view all 4 authors...
We measured vertical migration of zooplankton in an arctic fjord at 79uN between June and September 2002 and transcending a period of continuous illumination to one of true day and night to investigate the changing influence of light cues on behavior. Observations made with a moored 300 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler indicated that two modes of vertical migration occurred during the study period. During the weeks of continuous illumination, backscatter data indicated that there was no net...
77 CitationsSource
#1Josefino C. Comiso (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 58
[1] Although the Arctic perennial ice cover has been on a rapid decline, the winter ice cover had been unexpectedly stable. We report and provide insights into a remarkable turn of events, with the observation of record low ice extent and area during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Negative ice anomalies in these years are prevalent in the peripheral seas but are most dominant in the eastern Arctic basin where the perennial ice becomes even more vulnerable to further decline. Overall, the winter i...
143 CitationsSource
#1Ezio Rosato (University of Leicester)H-Index: 26
#2Charalambos P. Kyriacou (University of Leicester)H-Index: 48
The genetic, molecular and anatomical dissection of the circadian clock in Drosophila and other higher organisms relies on the quantification of rhythmic phenotypes. Here, we introduce the methods currently in use in our laboratories for the analysis of fly locomotor activity rhythms. This phenotype provides a relatively simple, automated, efficient, reliable and robust output for the circadian clock. Thus it is not surprising that it is the preferred readout for measuring rhythmicity under a va...
111 CitationsSource
#1Kate J Willis (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 14
#2Finlo Cottier (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 25
Last. Stig Falk-Petersen (NPI: Norwegian Polar Institute)H-Index: 53
view all 5 authors...
Abstract A continuous, high-resolution time series of zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected from Kongsfjorden between April and September 2002 using a sediment trap and instrumentation deployed on a mooring. The time series has, for the first time, demonstrated the close relationship between water mass advection and changes in zooplankton community structure in Kongsfjorden. Zooplankton identified in the trap samples included 31 species/genera and seven higher taxa representing ubiqui...
110 CitationsSource
Diel vertical distribution patterns of dominant zooplankton taxa were studied during a period of midnight sun (May 1999) in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Barents Sea along 2 tran- sects across the ice edge. Eight stations were sampled every 6 h over 24 h at 5 depth intervals. Our study confirmed that copepod nauplii (most probably Calanus hyperboreus and C. glacialis) together with Pseudocalanus spp. preferred the surface water layer. The herbivores C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis, and C. hyp...
77 CitationsSource
#1Geraint A. Tarling (NERC: Natural Environment Research Council)H-Index: 36
#2Magnus L. Johnson (University of Hull)H-Index: 13
Document S1. Supplemental Experimental Procedures and Supplemental AnalysisxDownload (.05 MB ) Document S1. Supplemental Experimental Procedures and Supplemental Analysis
48 CitationsSource
#1Victor Smetacek (Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research)H-Index: 46
#2Stephen Nicol (CRCs: Cooperative Research Centre)H-Index: 34
Polar organisms have adapted their seasonal cycles to the dynamic interface between ice and water. This interface ranges from the micrometre-sized brine channels within sea ice to the planetary-scale advance and retreat of sea ice. Polar marine ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change because small temperature differences can have large effects on the extent and thickness of sea ice. Little is known about the interactions between large, long-lived organisms and their planktonic fo...
347 CitationsSource
Cited By94
Newest
#1Jennifer J. Freer (BAS: British Antarctic Survey)
#1Jennifer J. Freer (BAS: British Antarctic Survey)H-Index: 3
Last. Laura Hobbs (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 4
view all 2 authors...
Diel vertical migration (DVM) refers to the daily, synchronized movement of marine animals between the surface and deep layers of the open ocean. This behavior is the largest animal migration on the planet and is undertaken every single day by trillions of animals in every ocean. Like a big game of hide and seek, animals that perform DVM spend the day hiding from predators in the deep ocean, and then migrate to the surface to feed under the cover of darkness. In this article we will explore this...
Source
#1Jørgen BergeH-Index: 30
#2Malin DaaseH-Index: 19
Last. Janne E. Søreide (UNIS: University Centre in Svalbard)H-Index: 22
view all 6 authors...
Pelagic communities play a key role in Arctic ecosystems. Although zooplankton occupy several different trophic levels in the food chain, their primary niche is often considered that of a link between pelagic and ice-associated primary production on one side and higher trophic levels on the other. In fact, most of the biological energy (organic carbon) ending up in top predators such as seabirds, fish and marine mammals have been funnelled through one or more zooplankton species. As such, zoopla...
Source
#1Vladislav Y. Petrusevich (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 3
#2Igor A. Dmitrenko (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 27
Last. Jens K. Ehn (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 24
view all 8 authors...
Abstract. Hudson Bay is a large, seasonally-ice covered Canadian inland sea, connected to the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic through Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait. This study investigates zooplankton distribution, dynamics and factors controlling them during open water and ice cover periods (from September 2016 to October 2017) in Hudson Bay. A mooring equipped with two Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and a sediment trap was deployed in September 2016 in Hudson Bay ~ 190 km north-east ...
Source
#1Jørgen Berge (UNIS: University Centre in Svalbard)H-Index: 30
#2Maxime Geoffroy (MUN: Memorial University of Newfoundland)H-Index: 8
Last. Paul E. Renaud (UNIS: University Centre in Svalbard)H-Index: 35
view all 13 authors...
For organisms that remain active in one of the last undisturbed and pristine dark environments on the planet—the Arctic Polar Night—the moon, stars and aurora borealis may provide important cues to guide distribution and behaviours, including predator-prey interactions. With a changing climate and increased human activities in the Arctic, such natural light sources will in many places be masked by the much stronger illumination from artificial light. Here we show that normal working-light from a...
3 CitationsSource
#1Stephen R. Okkonen (UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)H-Index: 15
#2Carin J. Ashjian (WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)H-Index: 29
Last. Philip Alatalo (WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)H-Index: 7
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Measurements of echo intensities were acquired in shelf waters of the western Beaufort Sea near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska by upward-looking 307 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 2008-2015 series of late-summer mooring deployments. These echo signals were analyzed for characteristic patterns of krill diel vertical migration (DVM) from which daily and seasonally-averaged DVM indices (DVMI) were derived. Time varying relationships among DVMIs (inferred krill biomass...
Source
#1Asgeir J. Sørensen (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 26
#2Martin Ludvigsen (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 13
Last. Finlo Cottier (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
Information and communication technology, autonomy, and miniaturization in terms of, for example, microelectromechanical systems are enabling technologies with significant impact on the development of sensors, sensor-carrying platforms, control systems, data gathering, storage, and analysis methods. Sensor-carrying platforms are grouped in stationary devices such as landers and moorings to dynamic platforms such as marine robotics, ships, aerial systems, and remote-sensing satellites from space....
Source
#1Geir Johnsen (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 30
#1Geir JohnsenH-Index: 5
Last. RolfGradingerH-Index: 39
view all 3 authors...
Microalgae have unique adaptions including low metabolic activity, utilization of lipid storage, and resting stage formation to survive the Polar Night. Some species are mixotrophic or heterotrophic and do survive periods that are not favorable for photosynthetic (autotrophic) growth, such as the Polar Night. In addition, the autotrophic and mixotrophic species seem to maintain the key components of the photosynthetic apparatus intact during the dark period, which allows them to resume growth ra...
Source
#2N. Sören Häfker (University of Vienna)H-Index: 2
#3Vicki J. Hendrick (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 5
Last. Fabio PiccolinH-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Biological clocks are universal to all living organisms on Earth. Their ubiquity is testament to their importance to life: from cells to organs and from the simplest cyanobacteria to plants and primates, they are central to orchestrating life on this planet. Biological clocks are usually set by the day–night cycle, so what happens in polar regions during the Polar Night or Polar Day when there are periods of 24! hours of darkness or light? How would a biological clock function without a timekeep...
Source
#1Geir Johnsen (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 30
#1Geir JohnsenH-Index: 5
Last. Jonathan H. Cohen (UD: University of Delaware)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
The Polar Night has long been regarded as a period of no biological activity. As a logical consequence, environmental management has mainly been neglected in this period. We will use the Northguider accident in December 2018 as a case study for the need to prioritize operative habitat mapping and monitoring to provide a sufficiently knowledge-based environmental operative management. After the ship ran ashore in a remote location in the northern part of Svalbard, the entire crew was safely rescu...
Source
#1Finlo Cottier (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 25
Last. Marie Porter (SAMS: Scottish Association for Marine Science)H-Index: 5
view all 2 authors...
The physical environment of the Arctic is captured in popular perception as being an isolated, frozen and intensely cold ocean. The reality is surprisingly different; an ocean system that supports warm inflow to the Arctic and exchange with the adjacent ocean basins, influenced by stormy weather systems that can originate in mid-latitudes, and having a sea-ice cover that is experiencing ongoing reduction in its extent and thickness. We review the primary oceanographic and bathymetric features of...
Source