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Person Versus Process Praise and Criticism: Implications for Contingent Self-Worth and Coping

Published on Jan 1, 1999in Developmental Psychology 3.34
· DOI :10.1037/0012-1649.35.3.835
Melissa L. Kamins1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
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Abstract
Conventional wisdom suggests that praising a child as a whole or praising his or her traits is beneficial. Two studies tested the hypothesis that both criticism and praise that conveyed person or trait judgments could send a message of contingent worth and undermine subsequent coping. In Study 1, 67 children (ages 5-6 years) role-played tasks involving a setback and received 1 of 3 forms of criticism after each task: person, outcome, or process criticism. In Study 2, 64 children role-played successful tasks and received either person, outcome, or process praise. In both studies, self-assessments, affect, and persistence were measured on a subsequent task involving a setback. Results indicated that children displayed significantly more "helpless" responses (including self-blame) on all dependent measures after person criticism or praise than after process criticism or praise. Thus person feedback, even when positive, can create vulnerability and a sense of contingent self-worth.
  • References (56)
  • Citations (424)
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References56
Newest
Published on Aug 7, 2001
Joanne A. Joseph1
Estimated H-index: 1
Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Self-Esteem Resilience Sizing Up Your Child Promoting Self-Esteem and Resilience: The Role of Parenting Stories: A Natural Way to Teach Resilient Values and Attitudes Teaching Children to Cope: The Role of Relaxation, Nutrition, and Exercise Teaching Children to Think Constructively Teaching Children to Make Good Decisions Cultivating Social Skills in Your Child Summing It All Up Bibliography Appendix 1: Suggested Readings Appendix 2: Sample Behavioral Contract A...
54 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Benjamin M. Dykman11
Estimated H-index: 11
Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation ...
227 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Claudia M. Mueller1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Praise for ability is commonly considered to have beneficial effects on motivation. Contrary to this popular belief, six studies demonstrated that praise for intelligence had more negative consequences for students' achievement motivation than praise for effort. Fifth graders praised for intelligence were found to care more about performance goals relative to learning goals than children praised for effort. After failure, they also displayed less task persistence, less task enjoyment, more lowab...
796 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Developmental Psychology 3.34
Erdley Ca1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UMaine: University of Maine),
Kathleen M. Cain5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Gettysburg College)
+ 2 AuthorsCarol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Two studies examined children's thought patterns in relation to their responses to social challenge. In Study 1, 4th and 5th graders tried out for a pen pal club under either a performance goal (stressing the evaluative nature of the tryout) or a learning goal (emphasizing the potential learning opportunities). In their behavior and attributions following rejection, children who were focused on a performance goal reacted with more helplessness, whereas children given a learning goal displayed a ...
153 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1997in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.92
Andrew J. Elliot79
Estimated H-index: 79
(UR: University of Rochester),
Marcy A. Church5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UR: University of Rochester)
A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation was proposed and tested in a college classroom. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed and their antecedents and consequences examined. Results indicated that mastery goals were grounded in achievement motivation and high competence expectancies; performance-avoidance goals, in fear of failure and low competence expectancies; and performance-approach goals, in ach.ievement motivation, fear...
2,156 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1996
Dale H. Schunk72
Estimated H-index: 72
12 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 1995in Child Development 5.02
Karen Klein Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
This article presents an expanded view of the bases of helpless reactions to failure. This view stems from recent findings of helplessness in young children. Previous formulations have stressed the attainment of invariant trait conceptions as a necessary condition for helplessness to occur and have suggested that children are relatively invulnerable to helplessness prior to this attainment. We review a series of studies documenting that key aspects of helplessness are present in preschool and ea...
157 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 1995in Psychological Inquiry 10.27
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Chi-yue Chiu48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Ying-yi Hong21
Estimated H-index: 21
In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human actions and outcomes. We review research showing that when people believe that attributes (such as intelligence or moral character) are fixed, trait-like entities (an entity theory), they tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of these fixed traits ("I...
1,014 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 1994in Child Development 5.02
Patricia A. Smiley7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pomona College),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Smiley, Patricia A., and Dweck, Carol S. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals among Young Children. Child Development, 1994 65, 1723–1743. Developmental research has generally not found evidence of helpless responses to failure in young children; a prevailing view is that young children lack the cognitive prerequisite for helplessness. However, recent evidence suggests that even preschoolers are vulnerable to helplessness in some situations. In the present study with 4- and 5-year-olds, w...
223 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1994
Dale H. Schunk72
Estimated H-index: 72
(Purdue University)
A camp light holder including a telescoping shaft, structure including a substantially flat member extending transversely of the shaft at the bottom thereof and at least one elongated sharpened member for securing the shaft in an upright position on the ground, bail means removably secured to the top of the shaft for supporting a camper's gas lamp and reflecting means operably associated with the bail means for directing the light from the gas lamp. A clamp is provided in one modification of the...
285 Citations
Cited By424
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Cognition 3.54
Kelsey Lucca2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Rachel O. Horton1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UW: University of Washington),
Jessica A. Sommerville23
Estimated H-index: 23
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Abstract Infants’ persistence in the face of challenges predicts their learning across domains. In older children, linguistic input is an important predictor of persistence: when children are praised for their efforts, as opposed to fixed traits, they try harder on future endeavors. Yet, little is known about the impact of linguistic input as individual differences in persistence are first emerging, during infancy. Based on a preliminary investigation of the CHILDES database, which revealed that...
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Published on Jan 26, 2019in International Journal of Advertising 2.23
Tong (Tony) Bao (LIU: Long Island University), Tung-lung Steven Chang (LIU: Long Island University)+ 1 AuthorsSue H. Moon (SUNY: State University of New York System)
AbstractLeading digital technology companies have shown a strong interest in enabling children to send electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Recasting children from passive to active participants in marketing communications, this shift expands children’s marketing practices from how companies influence children via traditional marketing communications, to how children influence companies’ marketing practices through eWOM. We apply the value-capacity-vulnerability framework for children’s expressive r...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 13, 2019in Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Saskia Ferrar2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Concordia University),
Dale M. Stack24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Concordia University)
+ 3 AuthorsAlex E. Schwartzman29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Concordia University)
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Published on Sep 17, 2018in European Journal of Psychology of Education 1.53
Xiaoxia Huang (Western Kentucky University), Jie Zhang (UH: University of Houston), Laura Hudson
This study tested a proposed model consisting of mathematics anxiety, mathematics self-efficacy, and implicit theories of intelligence in predicting mathematics and science career interest in middle school students, while controlling for student math level. One hundred fifty-two seventh-grade students in a middle school in the USA participated in the study. Results revealed both similarities and differences on the relation among the intended variables by gender. The path analyses showed that, fo...
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Published on May 30, 2018in Journal of Educational Computing Research 1.54
Xiaoxia Huang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Western Kentucky University),
Richard E. Mayer98
Estimated H-index: 98
(UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)
This study investigated the effectiveness of adding four self-efficacy features to an online statistics lesson, based on Bandura’s four sources of self-efficacy information. In a randomized between-subjects experiment, participants learned statistical rules in an example-based online environment with four self-efficacy features added (treatment group) or not (control group). Results of analyses of variance showed that the treatment group performed better on practice (d = 0.36), retention (d = 0....
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Published on Jul 1, 2019in International Journal of Educational Development 1.41
Sara Gundersen1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Michael McKay
Abstract Using the 2011 round of the Africa Program for Education Impact Evaluation Survey, we examine the prevalence of corporal punishment and praise in both school and home settings. We find that corporal punishment is highly prevalent, with 70% of students reporting that their teachers engaged in corporal punishment and 11.7% of students reporting being beaten themselves the day before the survey was given. Beating is more prevalent in high quality schools and is associated with lower fourth...
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 2.98
John Garber124
Estimated H-index: 124
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University),
Sherryl H. Goodman43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Emory University)
+ 2 AuthorsCatherine G. Herrington1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Abstract Feedback that young children receive from others can affect their emotions and emerging self-views. The current experiment tested the effect of negative content (criticism) and negative tone (hostile) of the feedback on children’s affect, self-evaluations, and attributions. We also explored whether maternal history of depression and children’s temperament moderated these relations. Participants were 152 mothers and children (48% girls) aged 4 and 5 years ( M = 61.6 months, SD = 6.83). T...
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Published on May 7, 2019in Current Psychology 1.47
Thomas Evans3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Coventry University),
Agata Dobrosielska (Coventry University)
Research exploring feedback in the form of workplace performance appraisals or in educational contexts, is common. However, there is a dearth of research to inform evidence-based practice in every-day positive feedback. In the current study, 289 employed adults reported on their managers’ positive feedback, the feedback-seeking culture, and rated their own task performance. Findings suggest that managerial positive feedback, but not feedback-seeking culture, meaningfully predicts task performanc...
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Published on May 1, 2019in Perspectives on Psychological Science 8.19
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Stanford University),
David S. Yeager22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Texas at Austin)
A growth mindset is the belief that human capacities are not fixed but can be developed over time, and mindset research examines the power of such beliefs to influence human behavior. This article offers two personal perspectives on mindset research across two eras. Given recent changes in the field, the authors represent different generations of researchers, each focusing on different issues and challenges, but both committed to “era-bridging” research. The first author traces mindset research ...
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Published on May 1, 2019in Journal of Child and Family Studies 1.56
Holly H. Schiffrin8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Mary Washington),
Jennaveve C. Yost1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Mary Washington)
+ 2 AuthorsErynn Sendrick1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Mary Washington)
Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a consolidated helicopter parenting scale (CHPS) from five existing measures of helicopter parenting and utilize the new measure to examine the relationship between helicopter parenting and intelligence mindset.
1 Citations Source Cite