Person Versus Process Praise and Criticism: Implications for Contingent Self-Worth and Coping

Published on Jan 1, 1999in Developmental Psychology 2.93
· DOI :10.1037//0012-1649.35.3.835
Melissa L. Kamins1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Columbia University)
Abstract
Conventional wisdom suggests that praising a child as a whole or praising his or her traits is beneficial. Two studies tested the hypothesis that both criticism and praise that conveyed person or trait judgments could send a message of contingent worth and undermine subsequent coping. In Study 1, 67 children (ages 5-6 years) role-played tasks involving a setback and received 1 of 3 forms of criticism after each task: person, outcome, or process criticism. In Study 2, 64 children role-played successful tasks and received either person, outcome, or process praise. In both studies, self-assessments, affect, and persistence were measured on a subsequent task involving a setback. Results indicated that children displayed significantly more "helpless" responses (including self-blame) on all dependent measures after person criticism or praise than after process criticism or praise. Thus person feedback, even when positive, can create vulnerability and a sense of contingent self-worth.
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  • Citations (404)
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References56
Published on Jan 1, 1961
Carl R. Roger40
Estimated H-index: 40
3,471 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 1995in Child Development 3.78
Karen Klein Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Columbia University)
This article presents an expanded view of the bases of helpless reactions to failure. This view stems from recent findings of helplessness in young children. Previous formulations have stressed the attainment of invariant trait conceptions as a necessary condition for helplessness to occur and have suggested that children are relatively invulnerable to helplessness prior to this attainment. We review a series of studies documenting that key aspects of helplessness are present in preschool and ea...
156 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.73
Claudia M. Mueller1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Columbia University)
Praise for ability is commonly considered to have beneficial effects on motivation. Contrary to this popular belief, six studies demonstrated that praise for intelligence had more negative consequences for students' achievement motivation than praise for effort. Fifth graders praised for intelligence were found to care more about performance goals relative to learning goals than children praised for effort. After failure, they also displayed less task persistence, less task enjoyment, more lowab...
783 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1975in Developmental Psychology 2.93
Martin L. Hoffman29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Michigan)
The following arguments are offered for the view that the frequent correlation between discipline and internalization reflects parental influence: (a) Since parental discipline exerts more constraint on the child than the child exerts on the parent, child attributes like internalization that probably derived from behaviors and inner states associated with compliance are more apt to be consequents than antecedents of discipline. (b) Congenital and other factors that may affect discipline do not n...
213 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 1976in Organizational Dynamics 1.11
Edward L. Deci89
Estimated H-index: 89
79 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1980in Developmental Psychology 2.93
William S. Rholes16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Texas A&M University),
Janette Blackwell1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsConnie Walters1
Estimated H-index: 1
144 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.73
Benjamin M. Dykman11
Estimated H-index: 11
Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation ...
227 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1987in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5.73
Richard Koestner9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Rochester),
Miron Zuckerman41
Estimated H-index: 41
(University of Rochester),
Julia Koestner1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Rochester)
Experimentation sur les relations entre le type d'implication, la motivation et le contenu des encouragements (centres sur les aptitudes ou sur l'effort): l'orientation sur la tâche et le renforcement par l'aptitude entrainent le meilleur niveau de motivation
128 Citations Source Cite
Cited By404
Published on Feb 1, 2004in Behavioral Disorders 1.16
Kevin S. Sutherland19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Virginia Commonwealth University),
Nirbhay N. Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) are characterized by academic deficits and classroom behavioral problems. The relationship between problem behavior and aca- demic difficulties is complex, and some researchers have hypothesized that the classroom behavior problems of students with E/BD are responses to aversive stimuli, namely ineffective academic instruction and/or difficult tasks. The authors suggest that learned helplessness might further explain some of the academic and...
47 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Merrill-palmer Quarterly
Rebecca Goodvin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Western Washington University),
Jacqueline Rolfson1
Estimated H-index: 1
Effects of feedback on children's self-evaluations are well established, yet little is known about how parents talk with children about everyday successes and failures, despite the importance of parent-child reminiscing in children's psychological understanding. We examine mothers' attributions and performance evaluations in conversations about their 5-year-olds' ( N = 80) success and failure experiences, and connections between conversations and children's self-evaluations. Conversations differ...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2003in Social Psychology of Education 1.26
Robert B. Ricco5
Estimated H-index: 5
(California State University, San Bernardino),
Deanne G. Mccollum1
Estimated H-index: 1
(California State University, San Bernardino),
Sara Schuyten1
Estimated H-index: 1
(California State University, San Bernardino)
The present study considers the relationship between college mothers' academic achievement goals (both learning and performance) and the mothers' attitudes toward their children's schoolwork as well as the relationship between each of these sets of characteristics in mothers and their elementary-school-age children's attitudes about learning. Results indicate that a mother's adoption of learning goals in her college education is positively related to the endorsement of a process/indirect focus w...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2004in Archives De Pediatrie 0.29
D. Da Fonseca15
Estimated H-index: 15
,
François Cury21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Aix-Marseille University)
+ 1 AuthorsM. Rufo7
Estimated H-index: 7
Ellen Rydell Altermatt9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Hanover College),
Elizabeth F. Broady2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas at Austin)
Published on Jul 1, 2016in European Journal of Psychology of Education 1.48
Pascal Bressoux10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Pascal Pansu11
Estimated H-index: 11
This article aims to study the relationship between teachers’ judgment and pupils’ self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils’ perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers’ judgment and BFLPE were found to have an independent relation with pupils’ self-perceived scholastic competence. Study 2 (n = 660) replicated the same results of study 1. Study 3 (n = 683) extended...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2011in The Journal of Classroom Interaction
San Bolkan14
Estimated H-index: 14
,
Alan K. Goodboy19
Estimated H-index: 19
The purpose of this study was to explore low-income, African-American first-grade students' understandings of teacher closeness and influence. Several questions guided our inquiry: How do these children understand their rela tionships with their teachers, specifically with regard to teacher closeness and influence? To what extent are their un derstandings of these concepts malleable? How might their feelings of closeness and influence relate to their motiva tion to engage in mathematics activiti...
7 Citations
Published on Jan 30, 2014in The Phenomenon of Singing
Diana Allan (University of Texas at San Antonio)
Music, and song specifically, can move us like nothing else. The power of song is undeniable. If words alone could express what we wanted and needed to express, we would merely say them. But no, combining the words with music is what enables us to express more accurately what is deep within us, what we desire to share with others—the ineffable nature of being human. If this sounds heavy, it is. Musicians go through a rigorous preparatory and training process to become performers. They learn the ...