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Reputation and impact in academic careers

Published on Oct 28, 2014in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America9.58
· DOI :10.1073/pnas.1323111111
Alexander M. Petersen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca),
Santo Fortunato10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Aalto University)
+ 6 AuthorsNicola Carmine Salerno30
Estimated H-index: 30
(BU: Boston University)
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Abstract
Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication’s citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author’s reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science.
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  • References (36)
  • Citations (92)
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References36
Newest
Published on Jul 20, 2015 in DATA (International Conference on Data Technologies and Applications)
Robert Viseur3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Mons)
The term “open data” refers to information that has been made technically and legally available for reuse. In our research, we focus on the particular case of open research data. We conducted a literature review in order to determine what are the motivations to release open research data and what are the issues related to the development of open research data. Our research allowed to identify seven motivations for researchers to open research data and discuss seven issues. The paper highligh...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in The Review of Economics and Statistics3.64
Lorenzo Ductor5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Massey University),
Marcel Fafchamps58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Oxford)
+ 1 AuthorsMarco van der Leij11
Estimated H-index: 11
We study how knowledge about the social network of an individual researcher, as embodied in his coauthor relations, helps us in developing a more accurate prediction of his or her future productivity. We find that incorporating information about coauthor networks leads to a modest improvement in the accuracy of forecasts on individual output, over and above what we can predict based on the knowledge of past individual output. Second, we find that the informativeness of networks dissipates over t...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Scientific Reports4.01
Susan Feng Lu6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Purdue University),
Ginger Zhe Jin22
Estimated H-index: 22
(NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research)
+ 1 AuthorsBenjamin F. Jones20
Estimated H-index: 20
(NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research)
Scientific articles are retracted at increasing rates, with the highest rates among top journals. Here we show that a single retraction triggers citation losses through an author’s prior body of work. Compared to closely-matched control papers, citations fall by an average of 6.9% per year for each prior publication. These chain reactions are sustained on authors’ papers (a) published up to a decade earlier and (b) connected within the authors’ own citation network by up to 4 degrees of separati...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Scientific Reports4.01
Orion Penner10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Raj Kumar Pan22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 2 AuthorsSanto Fortunato36
Estimated H-index: 36
Correctly assessing a scientist's past research impact and potential for future impact is key in recruitment decisions and other evaluation processes. While a candidate's future impact is the main concern for these decisions, most measures only quantify the impact of previous work. Recently, it has been argued that linear regression models are capable of predicting a scientist's future impact. By applying that future impact model to 762 careers drawn from three disciplines: physics, biology, and...
Published on Mar 1, 2013in Physics Today3.09
In 1651 Giovanni Riccioli reported the earliest accurate measurements the acceleration due to gravity, g, from pendulum-timed free fall experiments. The use of Huygens' pendulum formula (published 1673) allows one to deduce the pendulum length from this data, free from assumptions about the conversion to modern units, and independent of the actual value of g. When this length is compared to the reported pendulum length, a 15% systematic error is revealed. This could perhaps be attributed to the ...
Published on 2013in Physics Today3.09
Orion Penner10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Raj Kumar Pan22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 1 AuthorsSanto Fortunato1
Estimated H-index: 1
Laboratory for the Analysis of Complex Economic Systems,IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies, 55100 Lucca, ItalyWe stress-test the career predictability model proposed by Acuna et al. [Nature 489, 201-2 2012] by applyingtheir model to a longitudinal career data set of 100 Assistant professors in physics, two from each of the top 50physics departments in the US. The Acuna model claims to predict h(t+ t), a scientist’s h-index t into thefuture, using a linear combination of 5 cumulative career...
Published on Dec 12, 2012in PLOS ONE2.78
Jordi Duch14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NU: Northwestern University),
Xiao Han T. Zeng6
Estimated H-index: 6
(NU: Northwestern University)
+ 4 AuthorsLuís A. Nunes Amaral56
Estimated H-index: 56
Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias, especially at higher career levels, in many areas including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals experience as they pursue a career in academia within seven STEM disciplines. We built a unique database that comprises 437,787 publications authored by 4,292 faculty members at top United States research universit...
Published on Aug 28, 2012in Physical Review Letters9.23
M. Golosovsky21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Sorin Solomon26
Estimated H-index: 26
We perform experimental verification of the preferential attachment model that is commonly accepted as a generating mechanism of the scale-free complex networks. To this end we chose citation network of Physics papers and traced citation history of 40,195 papers published in one year. Contrary to common belief, we found that citation dynamics of the individual papers follows the \emph{superlinear} preferential attachment, with the exponent \alpha= 1.25-1.3 Moreover, we showed that the citatio...
Alexander M. Petersen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCM: University of California, Merced),
Massimo Riccaboni27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
+ 1 AuthorsNicola Carmine Salerno30
Estimated H-index: 30
Understanding how institutional changes within academia may affect the overall potential of science requires a better quantitative representation of how careers evolve over time. Because knowledge spillovers, cumulative advantage, competition, and collaboration are distinctive features of the academic profession, both the employment relationship and the procedures for assigning recognition and allocating funding should be designed to account for these factors. We study the annual production ni(t...
Cited By92
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Published on Dec 1, 2019in EPJ Data Science3.26
Weihua Li4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCL: University College London),
Tomaso Aste29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsGiacomo Livan8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UCL: University College London)
The growing importance of citation-based bibliometric indicators in shaping the prospects of academic careers incentivizes scientists to boost the numbers of citations they receive. Whereas the exploitation of self-citations has been extensively documented, the impact of reciprocated citations has not yet been studied. We study reciprocity in a citation network of authors, and compare it with the average reciprocity computed in an ensemble of null network models. We show that obtaining citations...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Social Network Analysis and Mining
Ramesh Dharavath2
Estimated H-index: 2
(IITs: Indian Institutes of Technology),
Navaljeet Singh Arora (IITs: Indian Institutes of Technology)
Link prediction in a given instance of a network topology is a crucial task for extracting and inspecting the evolution of social networks. It predicts missing links in existing community networks and new or terminating links in future systems. It also attracted much attention in many fields. In the past decade, many methodologies have been compiled to predict the suitable links in a given social network. Analyzing link prediction methods is difficult when the network is very complex due to rest...
Published on Apr 18, 2019in Scientific Data
Jichao Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University),
Yian Yin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
+ 1 AuthorsDashun Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
A central question in the science of science concerns how to develop a quantitative understanding of the evolution and impact of individual careers. Over the course of history, a relatively small fraction of individuals have made disproportionate, profound, and lasting impacts on science and society. Despite a long-standing interest in the careers of scientific elites across diverse disciplines, it remains difficult to collect large-scale career histories that could serve as training sets for sy...
Published on 2019in Nature Communications11.88
Alexander M. Petersen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCM: University of California, Merced),
Emmanuel M. Vincent13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UCM: University of California, Merced),
Anthony L. Westerling23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UCM: University of California, Merced)
We juxtapose 386 prominent contrarians with 386 expert scientists by tracking their digital footprints across ∼200,000 research publications and ∼100,000 English-language digital and print media articles on climate change. Projecting these individuals across the same backdrop facilitates quantifying disparities in media visibility and scientific authority, and identifying organization patterns within their association networks. Here we show via direct comparison that contrarians are featured in ...
Published on Dec 10, 2018in arXiv: Physics and Society
An Zeng17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Zhesi Shen6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 5 AuthorsShlomo Havlin99
Estimated H-index: 99
We analyze the publication records of individual scientists, aiming to quantify the topic switching dynamics of scientists and its influence. For each scientist, the relations among her publications are characterized via shared references. We find that the co-citing network of the papers of a scientist exhibits a clear community structure where each major community represents a research topic. Our analysis suggests that scientists tend to have a narrow distribution of the number of topics. Howev...
Vahan Nanumyan3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Christian Zingg (ETH Zurich), Frank Schweitzer38
Estimated H-index: 38
(ETH Zurich)
To what extent is the citation rate of new papers influenced by the past social relations of their authors? To answer this question, we present a data-driven analysis of nine different physics journals. Our analysis is based on a two-layer network representation constructed from two large-scale data sets, INSPIREHEP and APS. The social layer contains authors as nodes and coauthorship relations as links. This allows us to quantify the social relations of each author, prior to the publication of a...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Research Policy5.42
Anders Broström9
Estimated H-index: 9
(KTH: Royal Institute of Technology)
This study investigates how research group characteristics relate to the early career success of PhD candidates who are trained in the group. In particular, we study how the citation impact of early-career PhDs is related to the staff composition and the funding of the group. Using data on a cohort of Swedish doctoral graduates in science, engineering, mathematics and medicine, two sets of findings are obtained. First, students who were trained in groups with a lower number of PhD students perfo...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Research Policy5.42
Alexander M. Petersen22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Raj Kumar Pan22
Estimated H-index: 22
+ 1 AuthorsSanto Fortunato36
Estimated H-index: 36
Abstract Quantitative research evaluation requires measures that are transparent, relatively simple, and free of disciplinary and temporal bias. We document and provide a solution to a hitherto unaddressed temporal bias – citation inflation – which arises from the basic fact that scientific publication is steadily growing at roughly 4% per year. Moreover, because the total production of citations grows by a factor of 2 every 12 years, this means that the real value of a citation depends on when ...
Published on Jun 13, 2019in Scientometrics2.77
Nature and Science—the top ranked, high impact multidisciplinary scientific journals with considerably low acceptance rate below 10%. As such, publication in these is considered to be a “Holy Grail” in disseminating ground-breaking scientific results. With marginal and permanently decreasing share, solo author articles (SAAs) represent rare category among these. Here I show what careers are behind the 334 SAAs published between 2003 and 2017, what is their impact and the relationship between the...
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