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Assessment of stress during handling and transport.

Published on Jan 1, 1997in Journal of Animal Science 1.70
· DOI :10.2527/1997.751249x
Temple Grandin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(CSU: Colorado State University)
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Abstract
Fear is a very strong stressor, and the highly variable results of handling and transportation studies are likely to be due to different levels of psychological stress. Psychological stress is fear stress. Some examples are restraint, contact wi th people, or exposure to novelty. In many different animals, stimulation of the amygdala with an implanted electrode triggers a complex pattern of behavior and autonomic responses that resemble fear in humans. Both previous experience and genetic factors affecting temperament will interact in complex ways to determine how fearful an animal may become when it is handled or transported. Cattle trained and habituated to a squeeze chute may have baseline cortisol levels and be behaviorally calm, whereas extensively reared animals may have elevated cortisol levels in the same squeeze chute. The squeeze chute is perce ived as neutral and non- threatening to one animal; to another animal, the novelty of it may trigger intense fear. Novelty is a strong stressor when an animal is suddenly confronted with it. To accurately assess an animal's reaction, a combination of behavioral and physiological measurements will provide the best overall measurement of animal discomfort.
  • References (49)
  • Citations (640)
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References49
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 1996in Journal of Animal Science 1.70
Jeffrey Rushen50
Estimated H-index: 50
(AAFC: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada)
The extent that handling farm animals causes them to suffer is a central concern when assessing their welfare. "Suffering" is a mental state, resulting from different emotions, such as fear, pain, or boredom, which have different causes and effects on the animal's behavior and physiology. What is common is that they are aversive; animals will seek to avoid such experiences. The degree of aversiveness can be measured using behavioral techniques, which are based on an animal's ability to learn the...
Published on Dec 1, 1995in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Temple Grandin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(CSU: Colorado State University),
Mark J. Deesing7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CSU: Colorado State University)
+ 1 AuthorsA.M. Swinker7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CSU: Colorado State University)
Hair whorl position on the forehead may be of value in selecting breeding cattle for a calm temperament. A total of 1500 cattle weighing 180–360 kg were temperament rated on a four-point scale. Seventy-two percent of the cattle were European × British breed crosses and 28% were Zebu × dairy breed crosses from Mexico. Cattle with a round hair whorl located above the eyes became significantly more agitated while they were restrained in a squeeze chute (crush) compared to cattle with a hair whorl l...
Published on Sep 1, 1995in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
J.C. Spensley1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
C. M. Wathes34
Estimated H-index: 34
+ 1 AuthorsJ.A. Lines16
Estimated H-index: 16
s /Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44 (1995) 257-281 277 musings result from stress, but the effect is not mediated by hypothalamo-pituitary-adreno-cortical (HPA) activity, throwing doubt on the value of this traditional index of stress. Behavioural and physiological responses of piglets to naturally occurring sounds J.C. Spensley”, CM. Wathesa, N.K. Waranb, J.A. Lined’ aSilsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford, UK ‘lERM,University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, UK
Published on Aug 1, 1995in Journal of Animal Science 1.70
J K Apple5
Estimated H-index: 5
(KSU: Kansas State University),
Michael E. Dikeman35
Estimated H-index: 35
(KSU: Kansas State University)
+ 4 AuthorsJohn A. Unruh24
Estimated H-index: 24
(KSU: Kansas State University)
Crossbred lambs (47.3 kg BW) were used to study the effects of restraint and isolation stress on endocrine status and blood metabolites, antemortem glycogenolysis, and incidence of the dark- cutting condition (DCC ) in the longissimus muscle ( LM) and to determine the role of muscle contraction in the formation of the DCC in sheep. Lambs were assigned randomly to three treatments: unstressed controls (C ); a single 6-h period of restraint and isolation stress (RIS); and a single 6-h period of RI...
Published on Aug 1, 1995in Journal of Animal Science 1.70
P Leneindre30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
G. Trillat8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 3 AuthorsJ.M. Chupin4
Estimated H-index: 4
Docility tests were performed over 3 yr on 906 Limousin heifers sired by 34 males. The heifers were tested individually when they were 10 to 11 mo old in a pen with a handler who had 2 min to lead the animal to a corner, keep it there for 30 consecutive seconds, and then to stroke it. Behaviors of the animals were recorded and scores calculated. The first score (docility score) was a continuous variable combining the greatest possible information. The second score (docility criterion) was a cate...
Published on Feb 1, 1995in Journal of Animal Science 1.70
R G White1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln),
J A DeShazer1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 6 AuthorsEdgar T. Clemens8
Estimated H-index: 8
(NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)
The objectives of this project were to see whether heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and vocalization could be used to evaluate stress of castration in pigs. Six groups of pigs 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 d of age were used in the study, a total of 172 pigs. Half of each group of pigs received lidocaine before castration, injected subcutaneously over the testicle and infiltrated around the cord; the other half were left as controls. Pigs castrated without lidocaine had a higher heart rate...
Published on Jan 1, 1995in Zoo Biology 1.15
Temple Grandin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(CSU: Colorado State University),
Matthew B. Rooney6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CSU: Colorado State University)
+ 3 AuthorsWendy Graffam2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CSU: Colorado State University)
Habituation and positive reinforcement procedures were successfully used for low stress blood sampling of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) at the Denver Zoological Gardens. Four adult females and three offspring were conditioned with a food reward voluntarily to enter a plywood crate for bimonthly blood sampling from the rear leg. Habituated and conditioned, nonsedated nyala could also be given intramuscular injections and be palpated on the udder and abdomen. Highly palatable sliced yams and carrots ...
Published on Jul 1, 1994in Behavior Genetics 2.31
Osamu Fujita5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Tsukuba),
Yasumasa Annen4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Tsukuba),
Akiyoshi Kitaoka13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Tsukuba)
This report compiles the results of a series of studies on the Tsukuba High- and Low-Emotional strains (THE and TLE) of rats (Rattus norvegicus) established at the University of Tsukuba, Japan. The THE and TLE strains have been selected, respectively, for low and high activity in a runway test. During the course of selection, defecation has increased in the THE strain and decreased in the TLE strain. These strain differences were not affected by maternal influences, early experience, or psychotr...
Published on Jun 1, 1994in Scientific American 1.95
Joseph E. LeDoux123
Estimated H-index: 123
Published on Jan 1, 1994in Meat Science 3.48
P. D. Warriss41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UoB: University of Bristol),
S. N. Brown38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 1 AuthorsI.K. Corlett1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract A study was carried out to relate subjective and objective measures of stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs. Thirteen slaughter plants were visited. The systems used for handling the pigs pre-slaughter and the levels of stress experienced by the animals were subjectively assessed. The sound level immediately before stunning was also measured. Generally, systems that were rated as being most stressful also produced higher levels of sound, probably because of the vocalisations of ...
Cited By640
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Meat Science 3.48
A.-M. Reiche (ETH Zurich), J.-L. Oberson + 5 AuthorsE.M.C. Terlouw1
Estimated H-index: 1
(INRA: Institut national de la recherche agronomique)
Abstract The study used 81 young bulls, half of which were disbudded at 7 weeks of age. The effects of horn status during rearing and of acute physical and emotional stress just before slaughter on the physiological status at slaughter and subsequent meat quality were investigated. Bulls were reared in groups containing i) only bulls with horns, ii) only bulls without horns, or iii) mixed (half with, and half without horns). Bulls of each rearing condition were assigned to one of two slaughter c...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in BMC Veterinary Research 1.79
Juan Pablo Jaworski2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council),
Marcos Iván Petersen (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)+ 1 AuthorsKarina Gabriela Trono (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)
BACKGROUND: The absence of virus expression during the chronic stage of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection and its reactivation upon ex vivo culture has become a long-lived Dogma. During the chronic stage of BLV infection the immune response limits viral replication and the mitotic division of latently infected cells, carrying BLV provirus, allows viral expansion and disease progression towards a lymphoproliferative disorder. Several stressor factors have been associated with animal productio...
Published on Jan 5, 2019in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 1.51
Leslie Antonio González-Grajales (FU: Free University of Berlin), Laura Pieper4
Estimated H-index: 4
(FU: Free University of Berlin)
+ 2 AuthorsR. Staufenbiel10
Estimated H-index: 10
(FU: Free University of Berlin)
Background Standardization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) in cattle has received little attention despite its widespread use to monitor glucose metabolism. The impact of management practices including several sensorial stimuli on test responses has not yet been described in young cattle. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of noise exposure, and visual food stimuli in combination with physical restraint on ivGTT and insulin traits in Holstein cattle. A total...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in BMC Genomics 3.50
Ariadna Mato2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Santiago de Compostela),
Raquel Rodríguez-Vázquez (University of Santiago de Compostela)+ 3 AuthorsCarlos Zapata20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Santiago de Compostela)
Background Pre-slaughter stress (PSS) impairs animal welfare and meat quality. Dark, firm and dry (DFD) are terms used to designate poor quality meats induced by PSS. Protein phosphorylation can be a potentially significant mechanism to explain rapid and multiple physiological and biochemical changes linked to PSS-dependent muscle-to-meat conversion. However, the role of reversible phosphorylation in the response to PSS is still little known. In this study, we report a comparative phosphoproteom...
Published in Research in Veterinary Science 1.75
M. Bagath8
Estimated H-index: 8
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research),
G. Krishnan7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
+ -3 AuthorsVeerasamy Sejian19
Estimated H-index: 19
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
Abstract Heat stress is well documented to have a negative influence on livestock productivity and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate change. Dairy cattle can be more vulnerable to the negative effects of heat stress as these adverse impacts may be more profound during pregnancy and lactation. New emerging diseases are usually linked to a positive relationship with climate change and the survival of microrganisms and/or their vectors. These diseases may exaggerate the immune suppression...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Meat Science 3.48
Maria Jorquera-Chavez (University of Melbourne), Sigfredo Fuentes18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Melbourne)
+ 2 AuthorsR. D. Warner30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Melbourne)
Abstract Pre-slaughter stress is well-known to affect meat quality of beef carcasses and methods have been developed to assess this stress. However, development of more practical and less invasive methods are required in order to assess the response of cattle to pre-slaughter stressors, which will potentially also assist with the prediction of beef quality. This review outlines the importance of pre-slaughter stress as well as existing and emerging technologies for quantification of the pre-slau...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Temple Grandin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(CSU: Colorado State University)
Abstract There are young managers in commercial animal agriculture in the United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and other countries, who are unaware of the scientific field of animal ethology. They may have an agricultural degree with no training in animal behavior. Some have no idea that scientists have already conducted many research studies on animal behavior. In this opinion paper, the author discusses ways to cross this divide. Basic animal behavior principles should be taught to both veteri...
Gonzalo A. Marín , Rafael E Larraín3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UC: Pontifical Catholic University of Chile),
Rafael E. Larraín
Abstract Tryptophan (Trp) is an amino acid used as precursor for several molecules in the body, including serotonin. Serotonin is involved in a broad range of physiological and behavioral functions, including stress response. Because serotonin cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, supply of Trp to the brain could be used to elevate serotonin synthesis and release. Evidence in monogastric species indicates that Trp supplementation may increase circulating serotonin and reduces stress response, bu...
I was born in 1947 and had autism with speech delay until age four. I am now a college professor of animal science. Horse activities enabled me to make friends through a shared interest in horses. This paper describes the benefits that I experienced from working with horses and my friendships and work skills. A close friendship developed with another student through both riding and horse craft projects. Keeping employment is a serious problem for many people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ...
Published on May 13, 2019in Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia
Franciely de Oliveira Costa1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UNESP: Sao Paulo State University),
G. Brito6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 3 AuthorsMarcia del Campo
ABSTRACT This study evaluated lairage time effects on carcass and meat quality traits of Hereford steers. Thirty Hereford steers fed on pasture were assigned to two treatments according to lairage time: 3 h (n = 15) and 12 h (n = 15). Individual temperament was assessed using crush score and flight speed. pH decline, glycogen content, meat color, and shear force were measured. pH was not different between treatments at any time point, showing a normal decline rate. Meat color [...]