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Individual Differences in Achievement Goals among Young Children

Published on Dec 1, 1994in Child Development5.02
· DOI :10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00845.x
Patricia A. Smiley7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pomona College),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
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Abstract
Smiley, Patricia A., and Dweck, Carol S. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals among Young Children. Child Development, 1994 65, 1723–1743. Developmental research has generally not found evidence of helpless responses to failure in young children; a prevailing view is that young children lack the cognitive prerequisite for helplessness. However, recent evidence suggests that even preschoolers are vulnerable to helplessness in some situations. In the present study with 4- and 5-year-olds, we tested a goal-confidence model that predicts achievement behavior during failure for older children. We first categorized preschoolers' orientations toward “learning” or “performance” goals based on their preference for a challenging or nonchallenging task. As for older children, goal orientation was independent of ability and predicted cognitions and emotions during failure. Further, consistent with the model, within a learning goal, children displayed the mastery-oriented pattern regardless of confidence level, whereas within a performance goal, children with low confidence were most susceptible to helplessness. These behavior patterns were found on a second task as well. Thus, our findings show that individual differences in achievement goals emerge very early.
  • References (34)
  • Citations (223)
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References34
Newest
Published on Dec 8, 1995
Martin L. Maehr35
Estimated H-index: 35
Part of a series that reflects research and theory concerned with motivation and achievement in work, school and play, this title focuses on a particular issue or theme.
Deborah Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
,
Susan L. Recchia9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
Published on Apr 1, 1992in Child Development5.02
Gail D. Heyman28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Kathleen M. Cain5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Gettysburg College)
Motivational helplessness, linked to conceptions of intelligence, has been well documented in older children. While some researchers have reported that children just starting school are motivationally invulnerable, others have found evidence of helplessness when these children encounter failure. The present study seeks to determine whether the reactions associated with helplessness can be identified in a new context, that of criticism, and whether any such responses are related to the child's co...
Published on Jan 1, 1990
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Published on Feb 1, 1988in Child Development5.02
Jude Cassidy41
Estimated H-index: 41
CASSIDY, JUDE. Child-Mother Attachment and the Self in Six-Year-Olds. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1988, 59, 121-134. Bowlby has proposed that child-parent attachment is important in the child's representation of self. In this study, the child's representation of self was examined in connection with child-mother attachment in a sample of 52 white, middle-class 6-year-olds. Children were seen in 2 play sessions, 1 month apart. Quality of attachment was assessed in each session based on the child's behavior...
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology5.92
Elaine S. Elliott1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Harvard University)
Une experience examine le role des objectifs lies a l'apprentissage et a la performance dans la determination des structures de reussite (mesures du choix, performance et verbalisations pendant les difficultes rencontrees)
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Journal of Educational Psychology5.18
Deborah Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
,
Denise H. Daniels6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Psychological Review6.27
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
,
Ellen L. Leggett2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Harvard University)
Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptiv...
Cited By223
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders1.80
Sara Cibralic (UNSW: University of New South Wales), Jane Kohlhoff8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
+ 2 AuthorsValsamma Eapen29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has significant negative impacts on a child’s development as well as their family’s social, emotional, and economic wellbeing. In an effort to better understand the aeitology of ASD and therefore provide interventions for children on the autism spectrum, various factors have been taken into consideration, one of which is emotion regulation (ER) ability. This paper sought to synthesize the current research on ER in children, specifically young ch...
Published on Sep 9, 2019in Child Development5.02
Julia A. Leonard9
Estimated H-index: 9
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Andrea Garcia (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Laura Schulz26
Estimated H-index: 26
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology2.98
John Garber124
Estimated H-index: 124
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University),
Sherryl H. Goodman43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Emory University)
+ 2 AuthorsCatherine G. Herrington1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Abstract Feedback that young children receive from others can affect their emotions and emerging self-views. The current experiment tested the effect of negative content (criticism) and negative tone (hostile) of the feedback on children’s affect, self-evaluations, and attributions. We also explored whether maternal history of depression and children’s temperament moderated these relations. Participants were 152 mothers and children (48% girls) aged 4 and 5 years ( M = 61.6 months, SD = 6.83). T...
Published on Mar 30, 2019in Metacognition and Learning2.75
Miriam Compagnoni (UZH: University of Zurich), Yves Karlen (NU: Northwestern University), Katharina Maag Merki9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Individuals hold different mindsets encompassing beliefs about trait stability (stable vs. malleable) and goal orientations (performance vs. mastery). These motivational beliefs affect behavioral self-regulation, which is an important predictor of school success and includes both executive functions (EF) and classroom behavioral self-regulation (CBSR). In this study, we examined the structure of mindsets in kindergarteners and the relations with EF and CBSR by interviewing 147 kindergarteners (5...
Katherine A. Leppert3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
Mary-Charlotte Wasserbach (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park), Lea R. Dougherty23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Evidence suggests cognitive styles are associated with depression; however, little research has examined cognitive styles in early childhood. Using developmentally appropriate, stress-inducing laboratory paradigms to assess young children’s cognitive vulnerability, the current study assessed negative and positive cognitive styles, their concurrent associations with well-established risk factors for depression in early childhood, and their stability from early to middle childhood. Participants in...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Early Childhood Research Quarterly2.83
Erik A. Ruzek10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UVA: University of Virginia),
Jamie Jirout1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UVA: University of Virginia)
+ 3 AuthorsRobert C. Pianta92
Estimated H-index: 92
(UVA: University of Virginia)
Abstract As research continues to show the benefits of high-quality early childhood education, it is important to ensure that measures are available to assess the full impacts of these programs for student outcomes. Many achievement measures and observational measures exist, but there is a need for measures of children’s experiences at the preschool level. Using data from 1102 preschool children, we evaluated the reliability and validity of a new measure of children’s academic orientations, incl...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Early Childhood Research Quarterly2.83
Theresa A. Roberts1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Oregon Research Institute),
Carol D. Sadler1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract A total of thirty-eight preschool children were randomly assigned to one of two explicit teaching treatments to teach alphabet letter sounds. One treatment was designed to enhance motivation and learning by utilizing letters with letter sound characters integrated into the letter shapes (integrated mnemonics) and short narratives about the letter sound characters. In the treated control, plain letters and alphabet books were the foundation of instruction. There were no significant treat...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in European Journal of Psychology of Education1.53
Céline Darnon18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Mickaël Jury4
Estimated H-index: 4
(university of lille),
Cristina Aelenei3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Paris V: Paris Descartes University)
Although approach forms of achievement goals (mastery and performance goals) have been shown to predict academic achievement in college, recent research underscores that these associations are rather weak and not consistently observed. The present study tests students’ social class (in the present research, generational status) as a moderator of the relationships between both mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals and final grade. One hundred students (45 first-generation students...
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Australian Journal of Early Childhood
Fiona Boylan (ECU: Edith Cowan University), Lennie Barblett4
Estimated H-index: 4
(ECU: Edith Cowan University),
Marianne Knaus3
Estimated H-index: 3
(ECU: Edith Cowan University)
The integration of mindset theory into classrooms can assist children in optimising academic achievement, increasing their agency for learning. The development of a growth mindset allows children to exercise autonomy over their learning, helping them to develop positive lifelong learning habits for the twenty-first century. This paper explores early childhood teachers' perspectives of mindset and the role of a growth mindset in developing children's agency for learning. Despite increasing resear...
View next paperHelplessness in Early Childhood: The Role of Contingent Worth.