Identification of a subgroup of patients at highest risk for complications after surgical cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of parietal and visceral peritonectomy procedures on moderate/severe morbidity in patients undergoing surgical cytoreducion and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and to identify subgroups of patients at highest operative risk. BACKGROUND: Cytoreducion with HIPEC is an effective but potentially morbid treatment option for peritoneal surface malignancies. Although complication rates have recently decreased with increasing experience, risk-factors for adverse operative outcome are still poorly understood. METHODS: A prospective database of 426 combined procedures was reviewed. Multivariate analysis tested the correlation between major morbidity and 6 peritonectomies (greater and lesser omentectomy, pelvic, parietal anterior, left and right diaphragmatic peritonectomy), 14 visceral resections, 5 other operative factors, and 12 clinical variables. The extent of peritoneal involvement was quantified by peritoneal cancer index (PCI). RESULTS: Mortality and major morbidity were 2.6% and 28.2%. PCI, number of visceral resections, poor performance status, and cisplatin dose more than 240 mg independently correlated to morbidity. The type and number of parietal peritonectomies and the type of visceral resections did not correlated to complications. Major morbidity rate was 65.7% in 35 (8.2%) patients with at least 2 of the following factors: PCI greater than 30, more than 5 visceral resections, poor performance status. Morbidity was 100% in 9 patients presenting all the risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable morbidity and low mortality may be achieved in high-volume centers. Operative outcome is mainly affected by a complex interplay of tumor, patient, and treatment-related factors. Preoperative and early intraoperative assessment of operative risk may identify a subset of patients unlikely to tolerate aggressive management.