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Discontinuous change in ice cover in Hudson Bay in the 1990s and some consequences for marine birds and their prey

PUBLISHED | 2016 in Ices Journal of Marine Science [IF: 2.76]
DOI | 10.1093/icesjms/fss040
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Abstract
Arctic ice cover has changed strikingly since the mid-1990s, with the minimum ice extent in the northern hemisphere diminishing by 8.5% per decade since 1981. In the Canadian Arctic, ice cover in June and November showed a step change in the mid-1990s, with little reduction before that. There was a similar step change in northern Hudson Bay. A long-term dataset on marine birds at Coats Island, Nunavut, revealed that many changes in seabird biology also exhibited an abrupt change at, or soon after, the change in ice conditions. This applied to their diet that switched in the 1990s from one dominated by Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, to one dominated by capelin, Mallotus villosus. Evidence from the proportion of Arctic cod in adult diets suggested that the length of the open-water season may be a good predictor of the switch between Arctic cod and capelin. Other changes, in nestling growth and population trend, may relate to the same ecosystem changes that led to the switch in diet. Abrupt changes, as in the breeding biology of murres at Coats Island, would seem to be characteristic of ecosystem alterations driven by climate change.
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References43
Klaus P. Hochheim9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Manitoba),
David G. Barber40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Manitoba),
Jennifer V. Lukovich13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Manitoba)
We present an overview of changes in Hudson Bay sea ice in the context of thermodynamic forcing due to increased surface air temperatures and dynamic wind and current forcing mechanisms. Examined in particular is the correspondence between sea ice extent, surface air temperatures, and atmospheric indices during spring and fall from 1980 to 2005. Changes in the timing of freeze-up and break-up over...
Ref 26Cited 20 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Manuel Barange35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Plymouth Marine Laboratory),
Roger P. Harris44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Plymouth Marine Laboratory)
The ocean is a vital component of the metabolism of the Earth and plays a key role in global change. In fact, the oceans cover so much of the Earth's surface that our planet has been described as the Water Planet, and it could be argued that its most extensive ecosystems are marine. Marine ecosystems are inextricably involved in the physical, chemical, biological and societal processes of global c...
Cited 88 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Steven L. Howell3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Calgary),
Adrienne Tivy8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Calgary),
Bea Alt7
Estimated H-index: 7
... (5 others)
Cited 14 Source
K. P. Hochheim1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Manitoba),
David G. Barber40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Manitoba)
[1] The principal objective of this study is to describe the autumn sea ice regime of Hudson Bay in the context of atmospheric forcing from 1980 to 2005. Both gridded Canadian Ice Service (CIS) data and Passive Microwave (PMW) data are used to examine the freezeup period for weeks of year (WOY) 43–52. Sea ice concentration (SIC) anomalies reveal statistically significant trends, ranging from −23.3...
Ref 39Cited 43 Download Pdf Cite this paper
David B. Enfield30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory),
Dennis A. Mayer13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory)
Past analyses of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability have suggested a dipole behavior between the northern and southern tropics, across the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). By analyzing an improved 43-year (1950-1992) record of SST (Smith et al., 1996) and other data derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), it is shown that the regions north and sou...
Ref 30Cited 571 Download Pdf Cite this paper
2016 in Marine Biology [IF: 2.14]
Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Carleton University),
Paul A. Smith18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Carleton University),
Laura McFarlane Tranquilla11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Memorial University of Newfoundland)
... (6 others)
The non-breeding movements of marine birds were poorly known until recently, but this information is essential to understanding the risk to different geographical populations from events on the wintering grounds. We tracked the migration routes and wintering areas of Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia from two breeding colonies in eastern Canada: Coats Island in northern Hudson Bay and The Minarets, B...
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Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Canadian Wildlife Service),
J. Mark Hipfner18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Memorial University of Newfoundland),
A. Poole56
Estimated H-index: 56
(Royal North Shore Hospital)
... (1 others)
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Klaus P. Hochheim9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Manitoba),
Jennifer V. Lukovich13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Manitoba),
David G. Barber40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Manitoba)
Abstract In this study we show recent trends in sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea ice extent (SIE) in Hudson Bay (HB) using Canadian Ice Service (CIS) data and passive microwave (PMW) data for the spring period, week of year (WOY) 24–30. Reductions in sea ice concentration and sea ice extent are examined in light of thermodynamic and dynamic forcing of sea ice. Results show surface air temperatu...
Ref 27Cited 36 Source Cite this paper
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Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Canadian Wildlife Service),
D. G. Noble4
Estimated H-index: 4
We collected feeding adult Thick-billed Murres at several different localities within the foraging range of the colonies at Digges Sound through the breeding seasons in 1980, 1981, and 1982. Examination of prey remains from the stomach and foregut showed that the majority of birds contained prey covering a range of sizes from 0.01 to 47 g wet weight at ingestion. The total energy equivalent of pre...
Ref 7Cited 26 Source Cite this paper
Kenneth P. Burnham56
Estimated H-index: 56
(Colorado State University),
David R. Anderson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(Colorado State University)
The second edition of this book is unique in that it focuses on methods for making formal statistical inference from all the models in an a priori set (Multi-Model Inference). A philosophy is presented for model-based data analysis and a general strategy outlined for the analysis of empirical data. The book invites increased attention on a priori science hypotheses and modeling. Kullback-Leibler I...
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Cited by27
Birgit M. Braune34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Carleton University),
Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Carleton University),
Keith A. Hobson81
Estimated H-index: 81
(Environment Canada)
... (2 others)
Abstract Some Arctic food web structures are being affected by climate change with potential consequences for long-term trends of environmental contaminants. We examined the effects of changes in trophic position of an Arctic-breeding seabird, the thick-billed murre ( Uria lomvia ), on declining rates of six major organochlorines (hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, dieldrin, p,p ...
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Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
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Kyle H. Elliott22
Estimated H-index: 22
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Yan Ropert-Coudert28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Strasbourg)
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Abstract Mapping areas of conservation concern for wildlife in the Arctic is urgently required to evaluate the impact of accelerating development in northern regions. There is substantial evidence that large seabird colonies reduce the availability of food in adjacent waters, creating a zone known as “Ashmole’s Halo”. Given the existence of the halo, Central Place Foraging theory (CPF) allows us t...
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Barry G. Robinson5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Alberta),
Alastair Franke7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Alberta),
Andrew E. Derocher50
Estimated H-index: 50
(University of Alberta)
Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the Arctic than other places in the world, which is likely to alter the distribution and abundance of migratory birds breeding there. A warming climate can provide benefits to birds by decreasing spring snow cover, but increases in the frequency of summer rainstorms, another product of climate change, may reduce foraging opportunities for insectivorous b...
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Estimated H-index: 34
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Estimated H-index: 42
(Carleton University),
Kyle H. Elliott22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Manitoba)
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Abstract Twelve marine fish species collected from a thick-billed murre ( Uria lomvia ) breeding colony in northern Hudson Bay in the Canadian Arctic during 2007–2009 were analyzed for legacy organochlorines (e.g. PCBs, DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs), and total mercury (Hg). No one species of prey fish had the highest levels...
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Marianne Marcoux10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Aberdeen),
Bailey C. McMeans15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Windsor),
Aaron T. Fisk45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Windsor)
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The diet of individuals within a species commonly differs among sex and age classes because of differences in energy requirements and physiological needs. Belugas Delphinapterus leucas show a high level of sexual habitat segregation and dimorphism that could result in differ- ences in diet between the sexes. Here, we used stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) from muscle and ski...
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2016 in Biodiversity
Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Carleton University),
Maria Gavrilo8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute),
Christine Eberl2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Carleton University)
The dispersal abilities of terrestrial mammals are severely constrained by water crossings, resulting in islands generally supporting less diverse mammal faunas than similar continental areas. In ice-affected Arctic regions, seasonal or permanent ice cover provides a bridging mechanism for dispersal, allowing water gaps to be crossed more rapidly and with less energy cost than is entailed in swimm...
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Estimated H-index: 11
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Sabrina Servanty16
Estimated H-index: 16
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Estimated H-index: 16
(United States Fish and Wildlife Service)
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Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar b...
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(James Cook University)
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Most ecological processes now show responses to anthropogenic climate change. In terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, species are changing genetically, physiologically, morphologically, and phenologically and are shifting their distributions, which affects food webs and results in new interactions. Disruptions scale from the gene to the ecosystem and have documented consequences for peo...
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Anthony J. Gaston42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Environment Canada),
Kyle H. Elliott22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Manitoba)
Ongoing climate change is altering Arctic marine ecosystems with major conse- quences for food-webs. Seabirds, by foraging over large marine areas but returning regularly to their breeding colonies, provide a good medium for tracking such changes. We studied the prey delivered to nestling thick-billed murres Uria lomvia at a colony in northern Hudson Bay, Canada, over the period 1981−2013. During ...
Ref 61Cited 10 Download Pdf Cite this paper
N.R. Reinhart1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Manitoba),
S.M.E. Fortune1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of British Columbia),
P.R. Richard1
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