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The molecular biology of HIV integrase

Published on Jul 1, 2012in Future Virology0.73
· DOI :10.2217/fvl.12.56
Robert Craigie52
Estimated H-index: 52
Abstract
Integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA is an essential step in the replication cycle of HIV and other retroviruses. The first antiviral drugs that target integrase, the viral enzyme that catalyzes DNA integration, have recently been approved and more are in the pipeline. These drugs bind to an intermediate in DNA integration called the intasome, in which a pair of viral DNA ends are synapsed by a tetramer of integrase, rather than free integrase enzyme. We discuss the biochemical mechanism of integration, which is now quite well understood, and recent progress towards obtaining atomic-resolution structures of HIV intasomes in complex with inhibitors. Such structures are ultimately required to understand the detailed mechanism of inhibition and the mechanisms by which mutations in integrase confer resistance. The path from early biochemical studies to therapeutic inhibitors of integrase highlights the value of basic science in fighting human diseases.
  • References (79)
  • Citations (19)
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References79
Newest
The multifunctional HIV-1 enzyme integrase interacts with viral DNA and its key cellular cofactor LEDGF to effectively integrate the reverse transcript into a host cell chromosome. These interactions are crucial for HIV-1 replication and present attractive targets for antiviral therapy. Recently, 2-(quinolin-3-yl) acetic acid derivatives were reported to selectively inhibit the integrase-LEDGF interaction in vitro and impair HIV-1 replication in infected cells. Here, we show that this class of c...
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HIV-1 integrase is one of the three viral enzymes essential to HIV replication. Consequently the development of therapeutics targeting this enzyme has been a major focus of antiretroviral research over the past two decades. Several classes of integrase inhibitors have been identified; of these the diketoacids (DKAs) show greatest promise: raltegravir (Merck & Co) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for HIV-1 therapy, while elvitegravir (Gilead Sciences/ Japan Tobacco) ...
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Integration of viral DNA into the host genome is an essential step in retroviral replication that is mediated by a stable nucleoprotein complex comprising a tetramer of integrase bridging the two ends of the viral DNA in a stable synaptic complex (SSC) or intasome. Assembly of HIV-1 intasomes requires several hundred base pairs of nonspecific internal DNA in addition to the terminal viral DNA sequence that is protected in footprinting experiments. We find that only one of the viral DNA ends in t...
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The assembly mechanism for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) synaptic complex (SC) capable of concerted integration is unknown. Molecular and structural studies have established that the HIV SC and prototype foamy virus (PFV) intasome contain a tetramer of integrase (IN) that catalyzes concerted integration. HIV IN purified in the presence of 1 mM EDTA and 10 mM MgSO4 was predominately a monomer. IN efficiently promoted concerted integration of micromolar concentrations of 3′-OH rece...
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The replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a complex multistep process that depends on both viral and host cell factors. The nuclear protein lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is a multidomain protein, present in host cells, which plays an important role in the integration process. LEDGF/p75 not only binds HIV-1 integrase (IN) at its IN binding domain (IBD) but also contains several motifs that function in DNA and chromatin binding. The demonstrated im...
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The HIV-1 integrase enzyme is essential for integrating the viral DNA into the host chromosome. Infection is aborted in the absence of integration, making integrase an attractive antiviral target. Recently approved inhibitors of integrase bind tightly to integrase assembled in a nucleoprotein complex with the viral DNA ends (intasome), but have only low affinity for free integrase. High-resolution structures of HIV-1 intasomes are therefore required to understand the detailed mechanisms of inhib...
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Insertion of retrovirus genome into host genome to replicate is mediated by a tetramer of the virus-encoded integrase protein. The structure of a related integrase from prototype foamy virus bound to the cleaved viral DNA ends, a complex called the intasome, was previously revealed. These authors solve the structure of the intasome interacting with the target host DNA both before and after it is cleaved, revealing new details of the integration process that may help in designing improved inhibit...
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Abstract The search of small molecules as protein–protein interaction inhibitors represents a new attractive strategy to develop anti-HIV-1 agents. We previously reported a computational study that led to the discovery of new inhibitors of the interaction between enzyme HIV-1 integrase (IN) and the nuclear protein lens epithelium growth factor LEDGF/p75. 1 Herein, we describe new findings about the binding site of LEDGF/p75 on IN employing a different computational approach. In this way further ...
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Lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a transcriptional coactivator involved in stress response, autoimmune disease, cancer and HIV replication. A fusion between the nuclear pore protein NUP98 and LEDGF/p75 has been found in human acute and chronic myeloid leukemia and association of LEDGF/p75 with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)/menin is critical for leukemic transformation. During lentiviral replication, LEDGF/p75 tethers the pre-integration complex to the host chromatin result...
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