Match!

Changing sea ice melt parameters in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Implications for the future presence of multiyear ice

Published on Sep 18, 2008in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
· DOI :10.1029/2008JC004730
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 2 AuthorsClaude R. Duguay29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Waterloo)
Cite
Abstract
[1] Estimates of annual sea ice melt onset, freeze onset, and melt duration are made within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) using SeaWinds/QuikSCAT data from 2000 to 2007. The average date of melt onset occurred on day 150, the average freeze onset occurred on day 266, and the average number of days of melt was 116. Melt onset occurred first, and freeze onset occurred last within the Amundsen, Western Arctic Waterway, and Eastern Parry Channel regions, whereas the reverse occurred in the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) and the M'Clure and Viscount-Melville regions. Multiyear sea ice (MYI) increases occurred from 2000 to 2004 because of dynamic import and first-year sea ice (FYI) being promoted to MYI, but this replenishment virtually stopped from 2005 to 2007, coincident with longer melt seasons. Only after two consecutive long melt seasons (2005–2006) and almost no replenishment were regions to the south of the QEI cleared of MYI. We argue that this is because MYI must slowly ablate on the underside while in transit within the CAA from the small oceanic heat flux and can therefore survive for several years in southern regions without replenishment. Net positive dynamic MYI import into the CAA was observed in 2007 following MYI removal during 2005–2006. Longer melt seasons will continue to reduce the inventory of FYI in the CAA following the melt season. Longer melt seasons within the CAA will likely not reduce MYI dynamic import, but it remains to be seen whether or not this MYI will be able to survive longer melt seasons as it migrates to the southern regions.
  • References (50)
  • Citations (29)
Cite
References50
Newest
Published on Jul 15, 2015
Fawwaz T. Ulaby64
Estimated H-index: 64
,
R. K. Moore26
Estimated H-index: 26
,
Adrian K. Fung36
Estimated H-index: 36
EN BIBLIOTECA: V.1: MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING FUNDAMENTALS AND RADIOMETRY. V.2: RADAR REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE SCATTERING AND EMISSION THEORY
Published on Mar 18, 2013
Martti Hallikainen37
Estimated H-index: 37
(UH: University of Helsinki),
Dale P. Winebrenner29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Washington)
Published on Mar 18, 2013
Walter B. Tucker21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory),
Donald K. Perovich56
Estimated H-index: 56
(Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory)
+ 2 AuthorsMark R. Drinkwater33
Estimated H-index: 33
(California Institute of Technology)
Published on Jun 1, 2008in Atmosphere-ocean1.17
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Adrienne Tivy9
Estimated H-index: 9
(U of C: University of Calgary)
+ 1 AuthorsSteve McCourt7
Estimated H-index: 7
(EC: Environment Canada)
Abstract Numerous studies have reported decreases in Arctic sea‐ice cover over the past several decades and General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations continue to predict future decreases. These decreases — particularly in thick perennial or multi‐year ice (MYI) — have led to considerable speculation about a more accessible Northwest Passage (NWP) as a transit route through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is used to investigate dynamic imp...
Published on Jan 3, 2008in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Josefino C. Comiso54
Estimated H-index: 54
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center),
Claire L. Parkinson39
Estimated H-index: 39
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
+ 1 AuthorsLarry V. Stock3
Estimated H-index: 3
(GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)
[1] Satellite data reveal unusually low Arctic sea ice coverage during the summer of 2007, caused in part by anomalously high temperatures and southerly winds. The extent and area of the ice cover reached minima on 14 September 2007 at 4.1 × 106 km2 and 3.6 × 106 km2, respectively. These are 24% and 27% lower than the previous record lows, both reached on 21 September 2005, and 37% and 38% less than the climatological averages. Acceleration in the decline is evident as the extent and area trends...
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Mark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
+ 5 AuthorsTheodore A. Scambos47
Estimated H-index: 47
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea ice extent has declined significantly in all months, with the decline being most pronounced in September. By mid-July 2007, it was clear that a...
Published on Oct 4, 2007in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Son V. Nghiem33
Estimated H-index: 33
(California Institute of Technology),
Ignatius Rigor29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 3 AuthorsGregory A. Neumann53
Estimated H-index: 53
(California Institute of Technology)
[1] The extent of Arctic perennial sea ice, the year-round ice cover, was significantly reduced between March 2005 and March 2007 by 1.08 x 10 6 km 2 , a 23% loss from 4.69 × 10 6 km 2 to 3.61 × 10 6 km 2 , as observed by the QuikSCAT/SeaWinds satellite scatterometer (QSCAT). Moreover, the buoy-based Drift-Age Model (DM) provided long-term trends in Arctic sea-ice age since the 1950s. Perennial-ice extent loss in March within the DM domain was noticeable after the 1960s, and the loss became more...
Published on May 16, 2007in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences),
Marika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research)
+ 2 AuthorsMark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)
[1] From 1953 to 2006, Arctic sea ice extent at the end of the melt season in September has declined sharply. All models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) show declining Arctic ice cover over this period. However, depending on the time window for analysis, none or very few individual model simulations show trends comparable to observations. If the multi-model ensemble mean time series provides a true representation of forced change...
Published on Mar 16, 2007in Science41.04
Mark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences),
Marika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research),
Julienne C. Stroeve46
Estimated H-index: 46
(CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)
Linear trends in arctic sea-ice extent over the period 1979 to 2006 are negative in every month. This ice loss is best viewed as a combination of strong natural variability in the coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere system and a growing radiative forcing associated with rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the latter supported by evidence of qualitative consistency between observed trends and those simulated by climate models over the same period. Although the large scatter between in...
Published on Dec 12, 2006in Geophysical Research Letters4.58
Marika M. Holland51
Estimated H-index: 51
(NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research),
Cecilia M. Bitz49
Estimated H-index: 49
(UW: University of Washington),
Bruno Tremblay10
Estimated H-index: 10
(McGill University)
[1] We examine the trajectory of Arctic summer sea ice in seven projections from the Community Climate System Model and find that abrupt reductions are a common feature of these 21st century simulations. These events have decreasing September ice extent trends that are typically 4 times larger than comparable observed trends. One event exhibits a decrease from 6 million km 2 to 2 million km 2 in a decade, reaching near ice-free September conditions by 2040. In the simulations, ice retreat accele...
Cited By29
Newest
Published on Apr 10, 2018in The Cryosphere4.79
Maria Belmonte Rivas (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council), Ines Otosaka (University of Leeds)+ 1 AuthorsAnton Verhoef12
Estimated H-index: 12
(KNMI: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute)
Abstract. This paper presents the first long-term climate data record of sea ice extents and backscatter derived from intercalibrated satellite scatterometer missions (ERS, QuikSCAT and ASCAT) extending from 1992 to the present date (Verhoef et al., 2018). This record provides a valuable independent account of the evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents, one that is in excellent agreement with the passive microwave records during the fall and winter months but shows higher sensitivity ...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Polar Science1.19
Xing-he Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Dalian Maritime University),
Long Ma1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Dalian Maritime University)
+ 2 AuthorsLi-na Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(DUT: Dalian University of Technology)
Abstract Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by “Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report”, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The re...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Marine Pollution Bulletin3.78
Hauke Blanken1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McGill University),
Louis Bruno Tremblay2
Estimated H-index: 2
(McGill University)
+ 1 AuthorsAlexander Slavin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(McGill University)
Abstract We present worst-case assessments of contamination in sea ice and surface waters resulting from hypothetical well blowout oil spills at ten sites in the Arctic Ocean basin. Spill extents are estimated by considering Eulerian passive tracers in the surface ocean of the MITgcm (a hydrostatic, coupled ice-ocean model). Oil in sea ice, and contamination resulting from melting of oiled ice, is tracked using an offline Lagrangian scheme. Spills are initialized on November 1st 1980–2010 and tr...
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Remote Sensing of Environment8.22
Mallik Sezan Mahmud5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of C: University of Calgary),
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
(EC: Environment Canada)
+ 1 AuthorsJohn J. Yackel20
Estimated H-index: 20
(U of C: University of Calgary)
Abstract We present an algorithm to detect melt onset over Arctic sea ice using high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from RADARSAT. The algorithm is based on the temporal evolution of the SAR backscatter coefficient (σ°), using an ice type specific threshold approach that also corrects for incidence angle variation. Using 4457 RADARSAT images, the algorithm was applied over sea ice in the northern Canadian Arctic Archipelago that low spatial resolution microwave sensors have dif...
Published on May 1, 2016in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing5.63
Yufang Ye4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Bremen),
Georg Heygster22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Bremen),
Mohammed Shokr7
Estimated H-index: 7
(ENVIRON)
Multiyear ice (MYI) characteristics can be retrieved from passive or active microwave remote sensing observations. One of the algorithms that combine both observations to identify partial concentrations of ice types (including MYI) is the Environment Canada Ice Concentration Extractor (ECICE). However, cycles of warm-cold air temperature trigger wet-dry cycles of the snow cover on MYI surface. Under wet snow conditions, anomalous brightness temperature and backscatter, similar to those of first-...
Published on Aug 1, 2015
Virginie Roy6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Université du Québec à Rimouski),
Katrin Iken27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)
+ 3 AuthorsPhilippe Archambault27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Université du Québec à Rimouski)
Abstract Climate changes in the Arctic are expected to decrease the currently tight pelagic–benthic coupling, yet large-scale, regional understanding of the origin of food for benthic organisms across both biological productivity and depth gradients is still missing. The organic matter assimilation pathways of benthic organisms, along with food-web structure, were investigated at shelf and slope locations spanning 2000 km across the Canadian Arctic using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analys...
Published on Jun 5, 2015in Arctic1.43
Virginie Roy6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Katrin Iken27
Estimated H-index: 27
,
Philippe Archambault27
Estimated H-index: 27
Major climate changes are underway in the Canadian Arctic, but our ability to monitor and predict their impact on faunal community structure is hindered by the lack of baseline diversity data. This study combined megabenthic community data sampled at 78 stations from 2007 to 2011 across the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic biogeographic units. These large biogeographic units were divided into five geographical regions to provide regional estimates of observed and predicted taxon richness. We ...
Published on Mar 1, 2015in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Stephen E. L. Howell21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Chris Derksen30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Brady2
Estimated H-index: 2
In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), multiyear ice (MYI) replenishment from first-year ice aging (CAAMYI-Oct-1) and Arctic Ocean MYI exchange (CAAMYI-exchange) contribute to the CAA's relatively heavy sea ice conditions at the end of the summer melt season. We estimate these components using RADARSAT and the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive and explore processes responsible for interannual variability from 1997 to 2013. CAAMYI-Oct-1 (52 ± 36 × 103 km2) provides a larger contribution tha...
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Journal of Geophysical Research3.23
Michael Steele50
Estimated H-index: 50
,
Suzanne Dickinson10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 1 AuthorsR. W. Lindsay36
Estimated H-index: 36
The seasonal evolution of sea ice loss in the Beaufort Sea during 1979–2012 is examined, focusing on differences between eastern and western sectors. Two stages in ice loss are identified: the Day of Opening (DOO) is defined as the spring decrease in ice concentration from its winter maximum below a value of 0.8 areal concentration; the Day of Retreat (DOR) is the summer decrease below 0.15 concentration. We consider three aspects of the subject, i.e., (i) the long-term mean, (ii) long-term line...
View next paperSea ice conditions and melt season duration variability within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1979–2008