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Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue: Their Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome
Published on Dec 1, 2000in Endocrine Reviews 15.54
· DOI :10.1210/edrv.21.6.0415
Bernardo Léo Wajchenberg25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of São Paulo)
Methods for assessment, e.g., anthropometric indicators and imaging techniques, of several phenotypes of human obesity, with special reference to abdominal fat content, have been evaluated. The correlation of fat distribution with age, gender, total body fat, energy balance, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and lipolytic activity, adipose tissue receptors, and genetic characteristics are discussed. Several secreted or expressed factors in the adipocyte are evaluated in the context of fat tissue localization. The body fat distribution and the metabolic profile in nonobese and obese individuals is discussed relative to lipolysis, antilypolysis and lipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. Finally, the endocrine regulation of abdominal visceral fat in comparison with the adipose tissue localized in other areas is presented.
  • References (315)
  • Cited By (2027)
Published on Jan 1, 1986in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
H. Kvist3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Gothenburg),
Lars Sjöström83
Estimated H-index: 83
(University of Gothenburg),
Ulf Tylen17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Gothenburg)
Abstract Eight healthy female volunteers with weights ranging from 46 to 119 kg were examined with a Philips Tomoscan 310 in order to determine the amount of adipose tissue. From analysis of 'attenuation profiles' at the thigh and trunk levels the attenuation interval of adipose tissue was determined to be -190 HU to -30 HU. The adipose tissue volume was calculated from the adipose tissue area of 22 scans and from the distances between these scans. Three different mathematical models were tested...
267 Citations
Published on May 1, 1996in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Claude Bouchard128
Estimated H-index: 128
Treva Rice54
Estimated H-index: 54
+ 3 AuthorsD. C. Rao69
Estimated H-index: 69
OBJECTIVES : The abdominal visceral fat depot is considered to be the most atherogenic, diabetogenic and hypertensiogenic fat depot of the human body. Although the amount of abdominal visceral fat is correlated with total body fat, there remain considerable inter-individual differences in visceral fat at any level of body fat content. No study has been reported to date on the contribution of genetic factors to the variability in abdominal visceral fat level. DESIGN : Abdominal visceral fat area ...
67 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 1991in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Armellini F3
Estimated H-index: 3
Zamboni M3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 4 AuthorsBosello O3
Estimated H-index: 3
77 Citations
Published on Feb 1, 1997in Diabetes & Metabolism 3.74
Lerário Ac1
Estimated H-index: 1
Bosco A1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsWajchenberg Bl1
Estimated H-index: 1
Pour evaluer une association entre l'augmentation de la masse adipeuse viscerale ou la concentration lipidique serique, et la tolerance au glucose ou l'insulinemie, comme facteur de risque cardiovasculaire, nous avons etudie 50 femmes adultes obeses sans diabete connu et 11 femmes de poids normal, en evaluant leur graisse abdominale par tomographie et leur insulinemie. Un diabete a ete observe chez 6 (12 %) et une intolerance au glucose chez 13 (26 %) des obeses. L'aire correspondant a la graiss...
11 Citations
Published on Apr 1, 1993in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Armellini F4
Estimated H-index: 4
Mauro Zamboni45
Estimated H-index: 45
+ 4 AuthorsOttavio Bosello35
Estimated H-index: 35
Computerized tomography, a method of proven reliability for direct measurement of both total and visceral body fat, is not widely usable and alternative means of assessing body fat are required. Several anthropometric parameters, including ultrasound measurements of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat, were considered in 119 females (age 15-72 years, body mass index 24-51 kg/m 2 ). Computerized tomography was also performed for total and visceral fat areas at the L4-L5 level. Reliability of eac...
138 Citations
Lottenberg Sa1
Estimated H-index: 1
Giannella-Neto D1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 6 AuthorsWajchenberg Bl1
Estimated H-index: 1
Objective: Patients with predominantly upper body obesity are at greater risk for developing diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in the regulation of regional body distribution. It has been accepted that the accumulation of fat into adipose tissue depends on regional metabolic regulation of adipocytes and that glucocorticoids play a role in this mechanism. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the...
56 Citations
Published on Jul 1, 1996in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
M. J. Williams6
Estimated H-index: 6
Gary R. Hunter56
Estimated H-index: 56
+ 4 AuthorsBlaudeau T2
Estimated H-index: 2
Intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAF) seems to be the primary fat depot putting individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to determine IAF cut-points for identifying CVD risk in pre- and post-menopausal women. Age ranged from 18 to 77 y and percentage fat ranged from 9 to 48%. Computed tomography (CT), IAF, DEXA determined regional fat and blood lipid profiles were obtained on 220 Caucasian women. Student's t-tests were run to determine differences betwee...
101 Citations
Published on Nov 1, 1994in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Tornaghi G1
Estimated H-index: 1
Raiteri R1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 4 AuthorsCraveri A1
Estimated H-index: 1
108 Citations
Published on Nov 1, 1990in Clinical Science 5.22
P. J. Grant1
Estimated H-index: 1
E. K. O. Kruithof1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsF. Bachmann1
Estimated H-index: 1
1. To investigate the acute effects of insulin and triacylglycerol (‘triglyceride’) on circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations, seven healthy volunteers were studied during hyperinsulinaemic clamps in the presence of euglycaemia (mean glucose concentration 5 mmol/l) and hyperglycaemia (mean glucose concentration 9 mmol/l) with and without triacylglycerol infusions. 2. During euglycaemia, plasma insulin levels rose from baseline values [median (range)] of 13 (6.6–20.6) m-unit...
69 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1999in Diabetes Care 13.40
Brunzell Jd1
Estimated H-index: 1
Hokanson Je1
Estimated H-index: 1
106 Citations
Cited By2027
Published on Mar 1, 2014in Acta Clinica Croatica 0.37
Marko Martinac11
Estimated H-index: 11
Davor Pehar1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 3 AuthorsMiro Jakovljević32
Estimated H-index: 32
furthermore, it is important to explore the possibility of a common biologic mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two disorders, in which special attention should be paid to the immune system function, especially the possible specific mechanisms by which cytokines can induce and maintain depressive symptoms and metabolic disorders. The data presented here emphasize the importance of recognition and treatment of depressive disorders with consequent reduction in the incidence of metabolic syndro...
33 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2003
Alexander Sorisky25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Ottawa),
AnneMarie Gagnon21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Ottawa)
+ 1 AuthorsDarine El-Chaar5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Ottawa)
Adipose tissue development occurs in early life, followed by ongoing adipose tissue remodelling in the adult. Formation of new adipocytes (adipogenesis) occurs via the differ-entiation of committed progenitor cells, known as preadipocytes. In positive energy balance, existing adipocytes enlarge to a finite degree to store excess calories; adipogenesis then ensues to enlarge the reservoir capacity.
Source Cite
Published on Dec 15, 2011
L'obesite est associee a une inflammation de bas grade et a une augmentation du nombre de monocytes circulants. Ces cellules sont des acteurs majeurs de l'immunite innee. Chez la souris, ils se subdivisent en deux sous-populations : les monocytes Gr1high et les Gr1low. Des etudes recentes suggerent que ces 2 sous-populations exercent des fonctions distinctes mais leur role respectif dans la physiopathologie de l'obesite est a ce jour inconnu. Nos travaux chez la souris demontrent qu'un regime ri...
Published on Dec 1, 2009in Metabolism-clinical and Experimental 5.96
Merce Miranda3
Estimated H-index: 3
Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 7 AuthorsJoan Vendrell43
Estimated H-index: 43
The trafficking of glycerol from adipose and hepatic tissue is mainly mediated by 2 aquaporin channel proteins: AQP7 and AQP9, respectively. In rodents, both aquaporins were found to act in a coordinated manner. The aim was to study the relationship between adipose AQP7 and hepatic AQP9 messenger RNA expression and the presence of glucose abnormalities simultaneously in morbid obesity. Adipose tissue (subcutaneous [SAT] and visceral [VAT]) and liver biopsies from the same patient were obtained d...
39 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2004
Stephen C. Woods102
Estimated H-index: 102
(University of Cincinnati)
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 20, 2010
Yoon-Myung Kim1
Estimated H-index: 1
BACKGROUD: Abdominal obesity is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and insulin resistance. Currently, the role of regular exercise alone in the treatment of abdominal obesity is unknown in adolescent boys.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 3-month regular exercise alone without calorie restriction on total and abdominal adiposity in overweight adolescent boys. More specifically, the effects of different types of exercise training (aerobic vs. resis...
2 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Psychosomatik Und Konsiliarpsychiatrie
Bernd Löwe42
Estimated H-index: 42
Wolfgang Herzog47
Estimated H-index: 47
Published on Jan 1, 2013in Vitamins and Hormones Series 2.06
Gabriel Ángel Martos-Moreno15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Autonomous University of Madrid),
Vicente Barrios26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Instituto de Salud Carlos III)
+ 1 AuthorsJesús Argente43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Autonomous University of Madrid)
Abstract The worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents during the past decades, in addition to mounting evidence indicating that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of comorbidities and the risk of premature death, resulting in a high economical impact, has stimulated obesity-focused research. These studies have highlightened the prominent endocrine activity of adipose tissue, which is exerted through the synthesis and secretion of a wide variety o...
17 Citations Source Cite
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