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Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue: Their Relation to the Metabolic Syndrome

Published on Dec 1, 2000in Endocrine Reviews 15.54
· DOI :10.1210/edrv.21.6.0415
Bernardo L Wajchenberg33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of São Paulo)
Methods for assessment, e.g., anthropometric indicators and imaging techniques, of several phenotypes of human obesity, with special reference to abdominal fat content, have been evaluated. The correlation of fat distribution with age, gender, total body fat, energy balance, adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and lipolytic activity, adipose tissue receptors, and genetic characteristics are discussed. Several secreted or expressed factors in the adipocyte are evaluated in the context of fat tissue localization. The body fat distribution and the metabolic profile in nonobese and obese individuals is discussed relative to lipolysis, antilypolysis and lipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. Finally, the endocrine regulation of abdominal visceral fat in comparison with the adipose tissue localized in other areas is presented.
  • References (319)
  • Citations (2068)
Published on Apr 27, 2009in Nutrition Reviews 5.79
Ancel Keys70
Estimated H-index: 70
(University of Minnesota)
115 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2000in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
G. De Pergola24
Estimated H-index: 24
Testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are fat-reducing hormones, even though they exert this effect by different mechanisms. In particular, T inhibits lipid uptake and lipoprotein-lipase (LDL) activity in adipocytes, and stimulates lipolysis by increasing the number of lipolytic β-adrenergic receptors. An indirect sign of these effects is the decrease of adipocyte leptin production. Lastly, T inhibits differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells. Concerning DHEA, this hormone does n...
134 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2000in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Gilberta Giacchetti31
Estimated H-index: 31
Emanuela Faloia20
Estimated H-index: 20
+ 6 AuthorsFranco Mantero66
Estimated H-index: 66
Recently, the genes of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor have been described in adipose tissue. In animal models the angiotensinogen in adipose tissue has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic alterations and hypertension associated with obesity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the AGT gene expression both in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese patients and lean s...
81 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1999in Diabetes 7.27
Ana Tereza M.G. Santomauro5
Estimated H-index: 5
G. Boden1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 5 AuthorsBernardo L Wajchenberg33
Estimated H-index: 33
Obesity is commonly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, as well as with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, two important cardiovascular risk factors. What causes insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in obesity remains uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that FFAs are the link between obesity and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and that, therefore, lowering of chronically elevated plasma FFA levels would improve insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia...
354 Citations Source Cite
Abhimanyu Garg63
Estimated H-index: 63
Ross Wilson4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
+ 8 AuthorsShailendra B. Patel31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL, Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome, OMIM #269700) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by near complete absence of adipose tissue from birth. Affected individuals have marked insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and acanthosis nigricans, and develop diabetes mellitus during teenage years. The genetic defect for CGL is unknown. A semi-automated genome-wide scan with a set of highly polymorphic short tandem repeats (STR) was carried out in 17 ...
153 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 1999in Diabetes 7.27
Zengkui Guo1
Estimated H-index: 1
Donald D. Hensrud28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Mayo Clinic)
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Dennis Jensen27
Estimated H-index: 27
To examine if postprandial splanchnic/hepatic free fatty acid (FFA) delivery is increased in upper-body (UB) obesity, and to determine the adipose tissue depots responsible for the greater postprandial FFA availability, we measured systemic and regional uptake and release of FFAs ([1-(14)C]palmitate) before and during a 5-h frequent-feeding mixed meal in eight UB and eight lower-body (LB) obese women. Postabsorptive FFA flux and splanchnic FFA delivery were not different in UB and LB obese women...
179 Citations Source Cite
Lidia S. Szczepaniak26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Evelyn E. Babcock17
Estimated H-index: 17
+ 5 AuthorsDaniel T. Stein23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Yeshiva University)
We validate the use of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantitatively differentiate between adipocyte and intracellular triglyceride (TG) stores by monitoring the TG methylene proton signals at 1.6 and 1.4 ppm, respectively. In two animal models of intracellular TG accumulation, intrahepatic and intramyocellular TG accumulation was confirmed histologically. Consistent with the histological changes, the methylene signal intensity at 1.4 ppm increased in both liver and muscle, whereas ...
542 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1999in International Journal of Obesity 5.16
Sr Smith1
Estimated H-index: 1
Jj Zachwieja1
Estimated H-index: 1
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature regarding the effect of caloric restriction, pharmacologic intervention. and exercise to promote the loss of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) DESIGN: A review was conducted of published studies which measured VAT using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging before and after caloric restriction, pharmacologic therapy, or exercise. STUDIES REVIEWED: 23 separate studies were reviewed. Men represented 38% and women 63% of the 599 volunteers. Ther...
107 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1999in Diabetes Care 13.40
Brunzell Jd1
Estimated H-index: 1
Hokanson Je1
Estimated H-index: 1
106 Citations
Published on Feb 1, 1999in Diabetes 7.27
Steven E. Kahn7
Estimated H-index: 7
Sofianos Andrikopoulos35
Estimated H-index: 35
C B Verchere9
Estimated H-index: 9
Islet amyloid has been recognized as a pathological entity in type 2 diabetes since the turn of the century. It has as its unique component the islet beta-cell peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), or amylin, which is cosecreted with insulin. In addition to this unique component, islet amyloid contains other proteins, such as apolipoprotein E and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which are typically observed in other forms of generalized and localized amyloid. Islet amyloid is obser...
368 Citations Source Cite
Cited By2068
Published on Jan 3, 2019in Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2.41
Cecília Pacheco Elias , Daniela Espíndola Antunes + 4 AuthorsAngélica Amorim Amato8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Brasília)
Background Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) is a rare genetic disease characterized by body fat abnormalities that lead to insulin resistance (IR). Clinical conditions linked to milder IR, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome, are associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, but little is known about its activity in FPL.
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Published on Apr 18, 2019in Scientific Reports 4.12
Miriam Ejarque7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Instituto de Salud Carlos III),
Fernando Guerrero-Pérez1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bellvitge University Hospital)
+ 11 AuthorsManuel Perez-Maraver (Bellvitge University Hospital)
We aimed to explore the relationship between GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in adipose tissue (AT) and incretin secretion, glucose homeostasis and weight loss, in patients with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery. RNA was extracted from subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) AT biopsies from 40 patients randomized to metabolic gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy or greater curvature plication. Biochemical parameters, fasting plasma insulin, glucagon and area under t...
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Published on Feb 11, 2019in BMC Medical Imaging 1.64
Louis Mullie5
Estimated H-index: 5
(McGill University),
Jonathan Afilalo29
Estimated H-index: 29
(McGill University)
Background Analytic morphomics, or more simply, “morphomics,” refers to the measurement of specific biomarkers of body composition from medical imaging, most commonly computed tomography (CT) images. An emerging body of literature supports the use of morphomic markers measured on single-slice CT images for risk prediction in a range of clinical populations. However, uptake by healthcare providers been limited due to the lack of clinician-friendly software to facilitate measurements. The objectiv...
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Published on Feb 25, 2019in Nutrition & Diabetes 2.74
Lindsay T. Fourman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Harvard University),
Emma M. Kileel (Harvard University)+ 9 AuthorsJanet Lo25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Harvard University)
Individuals with HIV are susceptible to visceral fat accumulation, which confers an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Advanced software to ascertain visceral fat content from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been validated among this population. We sought to compare DXA with computed tomography (CT) in the measurement of visceral fat cross-sectional area (VAT) in HIV and non-HIV using Bland–Altman analyses. Data were combined from five previously conducted studies of indiv...
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Published on Jan 21, 2019in Nature Communications 12.35
Mathias Rask-Andersen15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Science for Life Laboratory),
Torgny Karlsson12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Science for Life Laboratory)
+ 1 AuthorsÅsa Johansson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Science for Life Laboratory)
Body mass and body fat composition are of clinical interest due to their links to cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Fat stored in the trunk has been suggested to be more pathogenic compared to fat stored in other compartments. In this study, we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the proportion of body fat distributed to the arms, legs and trunk estimated from segmental bio-electrical impedance analysis (sBIA) for 362,499 individuals from the UK Biobank. 98 independent assoc...
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Published on May 24, 2019in Frontiers in Neuroscience 3.88
Romina M. Uranga3
Estimated H-index: 3
Jeffrey N. Keller58
Estimated H-index: 58
Source Cite
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMA) exert pleiotropic roles beyond mere lipid storage and filling of bone marrow (BM) empty spaces, and we are only now beginning to understand their regulatory traits and versatility. BMA arise from the differentiation of BM mesenchymal stromal cells, but they seem to be a heterogeneous population with distinct metabolisms, lipid compositions, secretory properties and functional responses, depending on their location in the BM. BMA also show remarkable differences among...
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Published on May 15, 2019in Stem Cells International 3.99
Camille Lefevre (Claude Bernard University Lyon 1), Baptiste Panthu (Claude Bernard University Lyon 1)+ 6 AuthorsAnne Mey (Claude Bernard University Lyon 1)
White adipose tissues are functionally heterogeneous and differently manage the excess of energy supply. While the expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) is protective in obesity, that of visceral adipose tissues (VAT) correlates with the emergence of metabolic diseases. Maintained in fat pads throughout life, adipose stem cells (ASC) are mesenchymal-like stem cells with adipogenesis and multipotent differentiation potential. ASC from distinct fat pads have long been reported to present...
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Published on May 8, 2019in PLOS ONE 2.77
Kathryn Murray7
Estimated H-index: 7
Caroline L. Hoad19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 7 AuthorsRobin C. Spiller67
Estimated H-index: 67
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Published on May 1, 2019in Nutrition 3.73
Carolina Avila Vianna3
Estimated H-index: 3
Bernardo Lessa Horta52
Estimated H-index: 52
+ 3 AuthorsFernando L. Barros (Universidade Católica de Pelotas)
Abstract Objectives Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an early marker of arterial stiffness and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Body fat measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and visceral fat, have been associated with CVD in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of PWV at 30 y of age using body fat measures. Methods In 1982, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and all live births were identified. T...
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