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Are scores on Hofstede's dimensions of national culture stable over time? A cohort analysis

Published on Aug 1, 2015in Global Strategy Journal 2.73
· DOI :10.1002/gsj.1098
Sjoerd Beugelsdijk28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UG: University of Groningen),
Robbert Maseland12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UG: University of Groningen),
André van Hoorn11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UG: University of Groningen)
Hofstede's framework, which is based on survey data collected in the late 1960s and early 1970s, dominates quantitative culture research in international strategic management. However, as countries develop economically, modernization theory predicts shifts in cultural values, which likely affect countries' scores on Hofstede's work-related values dimensions, in turn raising doubt about the continued relevance of this framework for global strategy researchers and practitioners. We examine how country scores on Hofstede's dimensions have developed over time by replicating Hofstede's dimensions for two birth cohorts using data from the World Values Survey. Results indicate that, on average, contemporary societies score higher on Individualism and Indulgence versus Restraint, and they score lower on Power Distance than do past societies. We find that cultural change is absolute rather than relative, meaning that countries' scores on the Hofstede dimensions relative to the scores of other countries have not changed very much. As a consequence, cultural differences between country pairs (i.e., cultural distances) are generally stable. We discuss the implications of our findings for global strategy research.
  • References (82)
  • Citations (71)
Published on Sep 1, 2015in Strategic Management Journal 5.57
Sean M. Handley10
Estimated H-index: 10
(ND: University of Notre Dame),
Corey M. Angst16
Estimated H-index: 16
(ND: University of Notre Dame)
To address concerns of opportunism, outsourcing firms are encouraged to deploy contractual and relational governance. The individual and collective effects of these mechanisms have been previously examined but not in specific contexts. This study examines the effects of contractual and relational governance on provider opportunism, incorporating the moderating influence of a “shift parameter”—national culture. Our results reveal that contractual governance is more effective in individualistic an...
Published on Feb 1, 2014in Global Strategy Journal 2.73
Klaus E. Meyer6
Estimated H-index: 6
(China Europe International Business School),
Saul Estrin43
Estimated H-index: 43
(LSE: London School of Economics and Political Science)
The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework is a leading analytical tool of global strategy but it is less valuable in explaining the heterogeneity of strategic choice for subsidiaries within an MNE. We propose an IRE framework of subsidiary strategy that complements the IR framework for the subsidiary level with a third dimension—selling to local versus export markets (E). Resource-based considerations suggest that subsidiary strategies must fit the resources both the parent MNE and the local...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Social Science Research Network
André van Hoorn11
Estimated H-index: 11
Robbert Maseland12
Estimated H-index: 12
Purpose - The purpose of this chapter is to make sense of the cultural distance paradox through a basic assessment of the cross-cultural comparability of cultural distance measures. Cultural distance between a base country and partner countries is a key construct in international business (IB). However, we propose that what exactly is measured by cultural distance is unique for each country that is chosen as the base country to/from which cultural distance to a set of partner countries is calcul...
Published on May 1, 2013in Global Strategy Journal 2.73
Christian Geisler Asmussen15
Estimated H-index: 15
(CBS: Copenhagen Business School),
Anthony Goerzen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Queen's University)
While recent research has pointed to the importance of regional strategy and the ‘interregional liability of foreignness,’ critics have pointed out that this argument obscures important differences within regions as well as the similarities across them. Bridging these diverging viewpoints, our research is designed to unpack this debate into cultural, institutional, and regional components. Using a large data set, we find that firms are significantly more dispersed across cultural and, in particu...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Journal of Economic Surveys 2.76
Elias L. Khalil19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Monash University)
Abstract Economists have recently started to discuss the roles of institutions and cultural beliefs in explaining the performance of civilizations. This paper investigates two views, ‘institutionalist economics’ and ‘culturalist economics’, with regard to the question of why Europe rose economically a few centuries ago, while other regions of the world lagged behind. These two views share a common platform raised on two pillars. First, both regard institutions/beliefs as extra‐economic – as prim...
Published on Jan 1, 2012
Harry C. Triandis53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Michele J. Gelfand44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Srilata Zaheer27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Margaret Spring Schomaker3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Laval University),
Lilach Nachum22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Baruch College)
In this commentary we build on Shenkar's (2001) award-winning critique of cultural distance, arguing that most distance constructs, in fact, suffer the same flaws because they oversimplify the relationship between countries, overlook their subjective and context-specific nature, and pay insufficient attention to the mechanisms through which distance operates. The idea of distance, however, has intrinsic value. Moreover, its considerable appeal and undeniable effectiveness have made it a well-ent...
Published on Aug 1, 2011in Strategic Management Journal 5.57
Craig Crossland8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Texas at Austin),
Donald C. Hambrick80
Estimated H-index: 80
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University)
The concept of managerial discretion provides a theoretical fulcrum for resolving the debate about whether chief executive officers (CEOs) have much influence over company outcomes. In this paper, we operationalize and further develop the construct of managerial discretion at the national level. In an empirical examination of 15 countries, we find that certain informal and formal national institutions—individualism, tolerance of uncertainty, cultural looseness, dispersed firm ownership, a common...
Published on Jan 1, 2011
Sjoerd Beugelsdijk1
Estimated H-index: 1
Location-specific advantages (LSA) and the liability of foreignness (LOF) are key concepts in international business and management research. To combine these concepts in a systematic framework, I develop a two-by-two matrix focusing on the nature of International Business (IB) research using four key terms: firm, context, comparative and interactive. This framework serves as a heuristic device in describing three main challenges IB scholars face when advancing the role of LOF and LSAs. These ch...
Published on May 27, 2011
Michael Minkov19
Estimated H-index: 19
Explains the relationship between national culture and national differences in crucially important phenomena, such as speed of economic growth, murder rates, and educational achievement. This book also explains differences in suicide rates, road death tolls, female inequality, happiness, and a number of other phenomena.
Cited By71
Pavlo Illiashenko (Tallinn University of Technology), Laivi Laidroo6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Tallinn University of Technology)
Abstract Previous studies have reported a positive association between the cultural dimension of individualism and bank risk-taking. We hypothesize that this association is likely to be confounded by the omitted effects of corporate governance. Given the indicative evidence that such confounders are less likely to affect listed banks, we test this association for a global sample of 467 commercial listed banks from 56 countries. Our results show that the association between individualism and bank...
Published on Nov 27, 2018
Lewis Davis11
Estimated H-index: 11
Claudia R. Williamson11
Estimated H-index: 11
Published on Nov 24, 2018in Journal of Academic Ethics
Saadia Mahmud6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UniSA: University of South Australia),
Tracey Bretag11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UniSA: University of South Australia),
Tomáš Foltýnek3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Mendel University)
Students’ attitudes towards plagiarism and academic misconduct have been found to vary across national cultures, although the relationship between national culture and students’ perceptions of plagiarism policy remains unexplored. Student survey data (n = 1757) from the UK, Czechia, Poland and Romania were analysed for differences in students’ perceptions of three specific aspects of plagiarism policy – access, support and detail – at their respective universities. Considered through the lens of...
Published in Global Strategy Journal 2.73
Thomas L.P.R. Peeters (Tinbergen Institute), Brian M. Mills7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UF: University of Florida)
+ -3 AuthorsHojun Sung2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Incheon National University)
Published on Jun 24, 2019in Applied Psychology 3.27
Lucy T.B. Rattrie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Stirling),
Markus G. Kittler7
Estimated H-index: 7
Karsten Ingmar Paul10
Estimated H-index: 10
(FAU: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)
Published in Journal of Economic Growth 6.15
James B. Ang24
Estimated H-index: 24
(NTU: Nanyang Technological University)
This paper presents evidence on the relationship between traditional farming practices and the emergence of individualistic culture. It hypothesizes that agricultural legacies have a persistent effect on the prevalence of modern-day individualistic traits. Individualism emerged in societies engaged in the farming of less labor-intensive crops, whereas interdependence emerged in societies engaged in the farming of more labor-intensive crops. The empirical analyses establish that agricultural lega...
Published in Obesity Reviews 8.19
Chelsea Wallace1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Auckland),
Stefanie Vandevijvere26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Auckland)
+ -3 AuthorsBoydoyd Swinburn68
Estimated H-index: 68
(Deakin University)
Published on Jul 8, 2019in Nursing Inquiry 1.50
Myung Suk Choi , Catherine Cook6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Massey University),
Margaret Brunton9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Massey University)