Protein crystal growth aboard the U.S. space shuttle flights STS-31 and STS-32

Published on Jan 1, 1992in Advances in Space Research1.746
· DOI :10.1016/0273-1177(92)90310-T
Lawrence J. DeLucas25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham),
Craig D. Smith15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)
+ 14 AuthorsCharles E. Bugg36
Estimated H-index: 36
(UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)
Results obtained from the Shuttle flight STS-32 flown in January 1990, and preliminary results from the most recent Shuttle flight, STS-31, flown in April 1990, are presented. Crystals grown in microgravity environment include Canavalin, isocitrate lyase, human serum albumin, and Anti-HPr Fab. It is concluded that about 20 percent of proteins flown exhibit better morphologies or better quality data than their earth-grown counterparts. About 40 percent do not yield crystals at all and the remaining 40 percent yield crystals that are either too small for X-ray analysis or produce data of poorer quality than the best earth-grown crystals.
  • References (10)
  • Citations (4)
#1Lawrence J. DeLucasH-Index: 25
#2Craig D. SmithH-Index: 15
Last. Charles E. BuggH-Index: 36
view all 24 authors...
Abstract Recent advances in protein crystallography have significantly shortened the time and labor required to determine the three-dimensional structures of macromolecules once good crystals are available. Crystal growth has become a major bottleneck in further development of protein crystallography. Proteins and other biological macromolecules are notoriously difficult to crystallize. Even when usable crystals are obtained, the crystals of essentially all proteins and other biological macromol...
35 CitationsSource
#1Lawrence J. DeLucas (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 25
#2Craig D. Smith (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 15
Last. Francis Raymond Salemme (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 24
view all 10 authors...
The crystals of most proteins or other biological macromolecules are poorly ordered and diffract to lower resolutions than those observed for most crystals of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Crystallization in the microgravity environment of space may improve crystal quality by eliminating convection effects near growing crystal surfaces. A series of 11 different protein crystal growth experiments was performed on U.S. space shuttle flight STS-26 in September 1988. The microgravity-grown...
143 CitationsSource
#1Marc L. Pusey (MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)H-Index: 26
#2William K. Witherow (MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)H-Index: 7
Last. Robert J. Naumann (MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Abstract A series of preliminary experiments were done to investigate solutal flow about growing lysozyme crystals and its effects. Density gradient driven flow as observed using a schlieren optical system. Crystals used ranged from 0.3 to 1.72 mm across the (110) face, and protein concentrations were from 3.7 to 23.7 mg/ml ( C sat = 1.2 mg/ml at 18°C). The convective plume velocities were found to be from 10 to 50 μm/s, which correlated with those predicted to occur based upon a diffusive-conve...
80 CitationsSource
A multiwire proportional chamber known as an imaging proportional counter has been used to collect X-ray intensity data for the determination of several structures by molecular replacement or difference Fourier analysis and has provided data for numerous other macromolecular crystallographic projects. Results obtained with an imaging proportional counter mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator indicate that the detector produces accurate intensity information and that its reliability is high...
415 CitationsSource
Major advances in the technology involved in determining protein crystal structures have facilitated several new and existing applications for protein crystallography. Protein crystal growth, the one major bottleneck in this field, has recently received much attention and several new developments hold promise for the future.
35 CitationsSource
#1Lawrence J. DeLucasH-Index: 25
#2F.L. Suddath (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 5
Last. Charles E. BuggH-Index: 36
view all 13 authors...
Abstract Protein crystal growth in space is of interest because of the potential applications for unique studies of crystallization processes. Theoretical and experimental research indicates that gravitational fields produce density-driven convective flow patterns which can influence crystal growth, and these convective effects can be controlled under microgravity conditions. Microgravity can also be used to control sedimentation effects. As part of a program to investigate the influence of grav...
110 CitationsSource
PERSPECTIVES AND SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 1 96 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 197 Neutron Density Maps-Informational Content . .. . . .. . .. .. ...... 1 197 Experimental Limitations of the Method .... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 20...
60 CitationsSource
133 CitationsSource
#1R.L. Kroes (MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)H-Index: 2
#2D.A. Reiss (MSFC: Marshall Space Flight Center)H-Index: 2
Abstract A study has been made of the properties of triglycine sulfate (TGS) aqueous solution relevant to its use for single crystal growth. Measurements of the solubility, index of refraction, density, viscosity, diffusivity, and optical dispersion are presented and discussed. A knowledge of these properties is of importance for controlling and modeling the growth process and for obtaining high quality single crystals.
36 CitationsSource
#1Walter Littke (University of Freiburg)H-Index: 6
#2Christina John (University of Freiburg)H-Index: 3
The preparation of suitably large protein single crystals is essentially the rate-determining step of protein x-ray structure determinations. Attempts to produce single crystals with two model compounds—β-galactosidase and lysozyme—under conditions of microgravity were successful. Crystals formed by salting out from solutions kept free of convection were 27 and 1000 times larger in volume, respectively, than those produced in the same apparatus but exposed to terrestrial gravitation.
143 CitationsSource
Cited By4
#1Yong YuH-Index: 5
#2Yuhong Liu (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
Last. Christian Betzel (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 39
view all 6 authors...
In order to study quantitatively the effects of forced solution on crystal growth, we designed a new set of experimental equipment, in particular, a microchannel mixer was used as crystallization container so that the consumption of protein samples was much reduced and thus an exact syringe pump could be used for precise control of the flow rates. Since the mixerrs section was designed to be rectangular, the solution velocity in its center was steady and constant, and thus repeatable experiments...
1 CitationsSource
#1Cui Hai-Liang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 2
#2Yu Yong (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 1
Last. Kang Qi (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
During the process of lysozyme protein crystallization with batch method, the macroscopic flow field of solid/liquid system was observed by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, a normal growth rate of (110) face and local flow field around a single protein crystal were obtained by a long work distance microscope. The experimental results showed that the average velocity, the maximal velocity of macroscopic solid/liquid system and the velocity of local flow field around single protein c...
3 CitationsSource
#1Lawrence J. DeLucas (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 25
#2Karen M. Moore (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 7
Last. Charles E. Bugg (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 36
view all 11 authors...
Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed on fourteen space shuttle missions between April 1985 and June 1992. These space shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapour diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission (june 25-July 9, 1992) was a space lab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware wa...
7 CitationsSource
#1Charles E. Bugg (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 36
#2Od Lawrence J. DeLucas PhD (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 1
Protein crystallography is a powerful method for determining the three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules. Although new methods, such as two-dimensional NMR, have demonstrated promise for determining the structures of small proteins and nucleic acids, the complete atomic arrangements within large proteins can only be determined at present using crystallographic techniques. Such crystallographic studies have been of major importance for establishing structure/function relationshi...
2 CitationsSource