Match!

The Arctic's rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis

Published on Feb 1, 2012in Climatic Change4.168
· DOI :10.1007/s10584-011-0101-1
Julienne C. Stroeve47
Estimated H-index: 47
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Mark C. Serreze63
Estimated H-index: 63
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
+ 3 AuthorsAndrew P. Barrett23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
Abstract
The sequence of extreme September sea ice extent minima over the past decade suggests acceleration in the response of the Arctic sea ice cover to external forcing, hastening the ongoing transition towards a seasonally open Arctic Ocean. This reflects several mutually supporting processes. Because of the extensive open water in recent Septembers, ice cover in the following spring is increasingly dominated by thin, first-year ice (ice formed during the previous autumn and winter) that is vulnerable to melting out in summer. Thinner ice in spring in turn fosters a stronger summer ice-albedo feedback through earlier formation of open water areas. A thin ice cover is also more vulnerable to strong summer retreat under anomalous atmospheric forcing. Finally, general warming of the Arctic has reduced the likelihood of cold years that could bring about temporary recovery of the ice cover. Events leading to the September ice extent minima of recent years exemplify these processes.
  • References (58)
  • Citations (847)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
362 Citations
575 Citations
417 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References58
Newest
#1Marika M. Holland (NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research)H-Index: 53
#2Cecilia M. Bitz (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 50
Last. David A. Bailey (NCAR: National Center for Atmospheric Research)H-Index: 23
view all 4 authors...
Climate model simulations from the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) suggest that Arctic sea ice could undergo rapid September ice retreat in the 21 st century. A previous study indicated that this results from a thinning of sea ice to more vulnerable conditions, a "kick" in the form of pulse-like increases in ocean heat transport and positive feedbacks that accelerate the retreat. Here we further examine the factors affecting these events, including the role of natural versus fo...
43 CitationsSource
#1Konrad Steffen (CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)H-Index: 50
#2Jeffrey R. Key (CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)H-Index: 42
Last. Irene Rubinstein (York University)H-Index: 3
view all 7 authors...
87 CitationsSource
#1Julienne C. Stroeve (CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences)H-Index: 47
#2James A. Maslanik (Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research)H-Index: 39
Last. Charles Fowler (Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research)H-Index: 21
view all 6 authors...
[3] The long‐term annual mean Arctic SLP field features an anticyclone centered over the northern Beaufort Sea, known as the Beaufort Sea High (BSH), and a trough of low pressure extending from the Icelandic Low northeastward into the Kara Sea. Associated surface winds drive the clockwise Beaufort Gyre ice motion, and the Transpolar Drift Stream (TDS), representing ice motion from the Siberian coast across the Arctic and then into the North Atlantic through Fram Strait. When the winter AO is in ...
121 CitationsSource
#1Xiao-Yi Yang (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 9
#2John C. Fyfe (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 39
Last. Gregory M. Flato (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 15
view all 3 authors...
[1] The observed evolution of Arctic troposphere temperature is the combined effect of many processes including the poleward transport of atmospheric energy. In this study we quantify the relationship between poleward energy transport and decadal temperature variations in the Arctic free-troposphere. Time series of Arctic free-troposphere mean temperature show a decade of maximal cooling centered in the late eighties, followed by a decade of pronounced warming centered in the late nineties. We s...
38 CitationsSource
#1Jennifer M. Jackson (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 12
#2Eddy C. Carmack (Fisheries and Oceans Canada)H-Index: 57
Last. R. G. Ingram (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
[1] Sea ice in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean has decreased significantly in recent years, and this will likely change the properties of the surface waters. A near-surface temperature maximum (NSTM) at typical depths of 25–35 m has been previously described; however, its formation mechanisms, seasonal evolution, and interannual variability have not been established. Based on summertime conductivity, temperature, and depth surveys and year-round Ice-Tethered Profiler data from 2005 to 2008,...
136 CitationsSource
#1James A. Screen (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 29
#2Ian Simmonds (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 55
Climate change does not occur symmetrically; instead, in a process called polar amplification, polar areas warm faster than the tropics. Recent work indicated that transport processes in the upper atmosphere account for much of the recent polar amplification, but this conclusion proved controversial. Here, updated reanalysis data have been used to show that reductions in sea ice are instead responsible.
922 CitationsSource
12 CitationsSource
#1Thorsten Markus (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 37
#2Julienne C. Stroeve (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 47
Last. Jeffrey A. Miller (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
[1] In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freezeup, and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freezeup. Using this method we analy...
411 CitationsSource
#1Marten Scheffer (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 92
#2Jordi Bascompte (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 61
Last. George Sugihara (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 43
view all 10 authors...
Many complex systems, ranging from ecosystems to financial markets and the climate, can have critical thresholds or tipping points where a sudden shift from one stable state to a contrasting regime may occur. Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult, but work in different fields of science is now suggesting the existence of generic early warning signals that may indicate for a wide class of systems if a critical threshold is approaching. Scheffer et al. conc...
1,893 CitationsSource
#1R. Kowk (California Institute of Technology)H-Index: 63
#2G. F. Cunningham (California Institute of Technology)H-Index: 17
Last. Donghui Yi (GSFC: Goddard Space Flight Center)H-Index: 20
view all 6 authors...
[1] We present our best estimate of the thickness and volume of the Arctic Ocean ice cover from 10 Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) campaigns that span a 5-year period between 2003 and 2008. Derived ice drafts are consistently within 0.5 m of those from a submarine cruise in mid-November of 2005 and 4 years of ice draft profiles from moorings in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Along with a more than 42% decrease in multiyear (MY) ice coverage since 2005, there was a remarkable th...
523 CitationsSource
Cited By847
Newest
#1David Jensen (VT: Virginia Tech)
#2Andrew R. Mahoney (UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)H-Index: 17
Last. Lynn M. Resler (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 16
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Seasonal sea ice – ice which freezes in late fall and melts completely the following summer – is a central feature in the ecology, geomorphology, and climatology of the eastern Bering Sea. In this region's coastal zones, sea ice becomes locked in a stationary position against coastlines and influences interactions among land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. A thorough understanding of how this stationary ice, known as landfast ice, affects unique biogeophysical processes in the easter...
Source
#1Xiaoyong Yu (NU: Nanjing University)
#2Annette RinkeH-Index: 30
Last. Vladimir M. GryanikH-Index: 14
view all 7 authors...
Abstract. We examine the simulated Arctic sea ice drift speed for the period 2003–2014 in the coupled Arctic regional climate model HIRHAM–NAOSIM 2.0. In particular, we evaluate the dependency of the drift speed on the near-surface wind speed and sea ice conditions. Considering the seasonal cycle of the Arctic basin averaged drift speed, the model reproduces the summer–autumn drift speed well but significantly overestimates the winter–spring drift speed, compared to satellite-derived observation...
Source
#1Cara C. Manning (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 5
#2Victoria Preston (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Last. Philippe D. Tortell (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 30
view all 10 authors...
Source
#1Seth L. Danielson (UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)H-Index: 22
#2O. AhkingaH-Index: 1
Last. L. W. Juranek (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 8
view all 26 authors...
Abstract A temperature and salinity hydrographic profile climatology is assembled, evaluated for data quality, and analyzed to assess changes of the Bering and Chukchi Sea continental shelves over seasonal to century-long time scales. The climatology informs description of the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water masses over the two shelves, and quantification of changes in the magnitude and throughput of heat and fresh water. For the Chukchi Shelf, linear trend analysis of the i...
2 CitationsSource
#1Jiyeon ParkH-Index: 5
#2Manuel Dall'Osto (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 27
Last. Young Jun YoonH-Index: 2
view all 13 authors...
Abstract. There are few shipborne observations addressing the factors influencing the relationships of the formation and growth of aerosol particles with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in remote marine environments. In this study, the physical properties of aerosol particles throughout the Arctic Ocean and Pacific Ocean were measured aboard the Korean ice breaker R/V Araon during the summer of 2017 for 25 days. A number of New Particle Formation (NPF) events and growth were frequently observed ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Haakon HopH-Index: 46
#2Mikko VihtakariH-Index: 6
Last. L. S. ZhitinaH-Index: 2
view all 11 authors...
The large declines in Arctic sea-ice age and extent over the last decades could have altered the diversity of sea-ice associated unicellular eukaryotes (referred to as seaice protists). A time series from the Russian ice-drift stations from the 1980s to the 2010s revealed changes in community composition and diversity of sea-ice protists from the Central Arctic Ocean. However, these observations have been biased by varying levels of taxonomic resolution and sampling effort, both of which were hi...
1 CitationsSource
#1Erica Escajeda (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 1
#2Kathleen M. Stafford (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 26
Last. Kristin L. Laidre (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 32
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) are common summer visitors to the Pacific Arctic, migrating through the Bering Strait and into the southern Chukchi Sea to feed on seasonally-abundant prey. The abundance and distribution of fin whales in the Chukchi Sea varies from year-to-year, possibly reflecting fluctuating environmental conditions. We hypothesized that fin whale calls were most likely to be detected in years and at sites where productive water masses were present, indicated by low...
Source
#1Nicolas Dupont (University of Oslo)H-Index: 7
#2Joël M. Durant (University of Oslo)H-Index: 21
Last. Leif Christian Stige (University of Oslo)H-Index: 20
view all 5 authors...
Source
#1Motoyoshi Ikeda (JAMSTEC: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)
Last. Motoyoshi Ikeda (JAMSTEC: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)
view all 1 authors...
Abstract The 200m-thick surface layer of the Arctic Ocean contains a lower salinity part in the Canadian Basin, receiving fresher water from the Pacific Ocean as well as rivers, and also a higher salinity part in the Eurasian Basin, receiving saltier water from the Greenland Sea. This surface layer receives atmospheric forcing, and also partially mixes with the subsurface layer. Thus, thermohaline circulation is a fundamental pattern, under the influences of mesoscale features ( ∼ 10 km) and sma...
Source
#1Daohuan Xu (Ocean University of China)
#2Ling Du (Ocean University of China)
Last. Huangyuan Shi (Ocean University of China)
view all 4 authors...
Atmospheric moisture transport plays an important role in latent heat release and hydrologic interactions in the Arctic. In recent years, with the rapid decline in sea ice, this transport has changed. Here, we calculated the vertically integrated atmospheric moisture meridional transport (AMTv) from two global reanalysis datasets, from 1979–2015, and found moisture pathways into the central Arctic. Four stable pathways showed an occurrence frequency greater than 70%, and these pathways exhibited...
Source