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The Relationship Between Workplace Stressors and Mortality and Health Costs in the United States

Published on Feb 1, 2016in Management Science4.22
· DOI :10.1287/mnsc.2014.2115
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Harvard University),
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
(Stanford University),
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Stanford University)
Cite
Abstract
Even though epidemiological evidence links specific workplace stressors to health outcomes, the aggregate contribution of these factors to overall mortality and health spending in the United States is not known. In this paper, we build a model to estimate the excess mortality and incremental health expenditures associated with exposure to the following 10 workplace stressors: unemployment, lack of health insurance, exposure to shift work, long working hours, job insecurity, work–family conflict, low job control, high job demands, low social support at work, and low organizational justice. Our model uses input parameters obtained from publicly accessible data sources. We estimated health spending from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and joint probabilities of workplace exposures from the General Social Survey, and we conducted a meta-analysis of the epidemiological literature to estimate the relative risks of poor health outcomes associated with exposure to these stressors. The model was designed to overcome limitations with using inputs from multiple data sources. Specifically, the model separately derives optimistic and conservative estimates of the effect of multiple workplace exposures on health, and uses optimization to calculate upper and lower bounds around each estimate, which accounts for the correlation between exposures. We find that more than 120,000 deaths per year and approximately 5%–8% of annual healthcare costs are associated with and may be attributable to how U.S. companies manage their work forces. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to management practices as important contributors to health outcomes and costs in the United States. This paper was accepted by Dimitris Bertsimas, optimization .
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  • References (68)
  • Citations (54)
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References68
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
,
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
Extensive research focuses on the causes of workplace-induced stress. However, policy efforts to tackle the ever-increasing health costs and poor health outcomes in the United States have largely ignored the health effects of psychosocial workplace stressors such as high job demands, economic insecurity, and long work hours. Using meta-analysis, we summarize 228 studies assessing the effects of ten workplace stressors on four health outcomes. We find that job insecurity increases the odds of rep...
Published on Aug 8, 2013in BMJ27.60
Marianna Virtanen59
Estimated H-index: 59
(Finnish Institute of Occupational Health),
Solja T. Nyberg22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Finnish Institute of Occupational Health)
+ 43 AuthorsHermann Burr40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease. A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review. We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Emb...
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Journal of Applied Psychology5.07
Jordan M. Robbins1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Transportation Security Administration),
Michael T. Ford14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University at Albany, SUNY),
Lois E. Tetrick35
Estimated H-index: 35
(GMU: George Mason University)
A growing body of research has suggested that the experience of injustice, psychological contract breach, or unfairness can adversely impact an employee’s health. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of unfairness perceptions on health, examining types of fairness and methodological characteristics as moderators. Results suggested that perceptions of unfairness were associated with indicators of physical and mental health. Furthermore, psychological contract breach contributed to ...
Published on Mar 1, 2011
Kenneth D. Kochanek18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Jiaquan Xu19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 2 AuthorsHsiang-Ching Kung6
Estimated H-index: 6
OBJECTIVEs-This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2009 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. METHODS-Data in this report are based on death records comprising more than 96 percent of the demographic and medical files for all deaths in the United States in 2009. The records are weighted to independent control counts for 2009. Comparisons are made with 2008 preliminary ...
Published on Dec 1, 2009in American Journal of Public Health5.38
Andrew P. Wilper11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Steffie Woolhandler49
Estimated H-index: 49
+ 3 AuthorsDavid U. Himmelstein50
Estimated H-index: 50
Objectives. A 1993 study found a 25% higher risk of death among uninsured compared with privately insured adults. We analyzed the relationship between uninsurance and death with more recent data.Methods. We conducted a survival analysis with data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We analyzed participants aged 17 to 64 years to determine whether uninsurance at the time of interview predicted death.Results. Among all participants, 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] =...
Published on Aug 1, 2009in The American Journal of Medicine4.76
David U. Himmelstein50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Harvard University),
Deborah Thorne10
Estimated H-index: 10
(OU: Ohio University)
+ 1 AuthorsSteffie Woolhandler49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Harvard University)
Abstract Background Our 2001 study in 5 states found that medical problems contributed to at least 46.2% of all bankruptcies. Since then, health costs and the numbers of un- and underinsured have increased, and bankruptcy laws have tightened. Methods We surveyed a random national sample of 2314 bankruptcy filers in 2007, abstracted their court records, and interviewed 1032 of them. We designated bankruptcies as "medical" based on debtors' stated reasons for filing, income loss due to illness, an...
Published on Aug 1, 2009in Quarterly Journal of Economics11.78
Daniel C. Sullivan41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago),
Till von Wachter21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Columbia University)
We use administrative data on the quarterly employment and earnings of Pennsylvanian workers in the 1970s and 1980s matched to Social Security Administration death records covering 1980–2006 to estimate the effects of job displacement on mortality. We find that for high-seniority male workers, mortality rates in the year after displacement are 50%–100% higher than would otherwise have been expected. The effect on mortality hazards declines sharply over time, but even twenty years after displacem...
Published on Jan 12, 2009in JAMA Internal Medicine20.77
Akizumi Tsutsumi30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Kazunori Kayaba30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 1 AuthorsShizukiyo Ishikawa33
Estimated H-index: 33
Background No prospective studies have examined the association between occupational stress according to the job demand−control model and the risk of stroke in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a multicenter community-based prospective study of 6553 Japanese male and female workers. Occupational stress was evaluated using a Japanese version of the job demand−control model questionnaire. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between occupational stress and s...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Journal of Human Resources3.86
Marcus Eliason10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Uppsala University),
Donald Storrie12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Gothenburg)
This paper examines the impact of job loss on overall and cause-specific mortality. Using linked employer-employee data, we identified the workers displaced due to all establishment closures in Sweden in 1987 and 1988. Hence, we have extended the case study approach, which has dominated the plant closure literature. The overall mortality risk among men increased by 44 percent during the first four years following job loss, while there was no impact on either female overall mortality or in the lo...
Cited By54
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2020
James W. Grosch11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Juliann C. Scholl1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Human Resource Management Review3.63
Marie-Colombe Afota (HEC Montréal), A riane O llier-M alaterre11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UQAM: Université du Québec à Montréal),
Christian Vandenberghe32
Estimated H-index: 32
(HEC Montréal)
Abstract This paper develops a theoretical model that highlights the mechanisms underlying the contagion of long working hours from supervisors to subordinates at different stages of their relationship. Drawing upon social learning theory, we suggest that subordinates mimic the supervisor's working hours through vicarious learning. Focusing first on the role-taking stage of the supervisor-subordinate relationship, we identify four factors, namely supervisor's perceived status, subordinate's work...
Published on May 22, 2019in The American economist
Comfort F. Ricketts2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Randall C. Campbell8
Estimated H-index: 8
(MSU: Mississippi State University),
Jon P. Rezek8
Estimated H-index: 8
(ECU: East Carolina University)
Published on Sep 30, 2018in The Journal of Positive Psychology3.23
Tim Lomas13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UEL: University of East London),
Juan Carlos Medina3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Barcelona)
+ 2 AuthorsFrancisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Barcelona)
Given the demanding nature of many professions, efforts are ongoing to develop initiatives to improve occupational wellbeing, including mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). To assess the efficacy of MBIs, meta-analytic procedures were conducted on 35 randomized controlled trials derived from an earlier inclusive systematic literature search (covering all occupations, MBIs, and wellbeing-related outcomes). Mindfulness had significant moderate effects on deficit-based outcomes such as stress (S...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing0.88
Elizabeth Card3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Steve Alan Hyman4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 3 AuthorsMatthew B. Weinger35
Estimated H-index: 35
Purpose Describe prevalence of burnout in perianesthesia nurses, explore risks, mitigating factors. Design Cross-sectional descriptive. Methods Survey containing Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form-12, and Social Support and Personal Coping was emailed to American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses . Regression analysis examined relationships between burnout and health, social support, personal coping, substance use, and demographics. Findings Of 2,837 respondents, 18% were currently and 35% wer...
Published on Apr 14, 2019in Western Journal of Communication
Christina G. Yoshimura2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UM: University of Montana),
Christina G. Yoshimura (CSUSB: California State University, San Bernardino)+ -1 AuthorsBrian Heisterkamp (International Communication Association)
This study complements existing research on responses to work–family tension by illuminating the constitutive role of communication in framing this tension at work. We used a memorable-messages format to investigate the most memorable message 892 participants shared with coworkers regarding work–family conflict. We used thematic analysis to code messages, resulting in a model of 20 themes. Themes varied in their focus on independence vs. interdependence and perceived efficacy vs. perceived ineff...
Published on Jun 3, 2019in Employee Relations1.50
Mark John Somers20
Estimated H-index: 20
(NJIT: New Jersey Institute of Technology),
Dee Birnbaum8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Rhodes College),
Jose Casal5
Estimated H-index: 5
(NJIT: New Jersey Institute of Technology)
Published on May 26, 2019in Journal of Sleep Research3.43
Alexander Wolkow8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Monash University),
Laura K. Barger18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Harvard University)
+ 5 AuthorsShanthakumar M W Rajaratnam30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Monash University)
Published on May 17, 2019in Economic & Industrial Democracy1.56
Christiane Lübke2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Duisburg-Essen)
While the detrimental health effects of self-perceived job insecurity are well documented, less is known about the mechanisms through which insecurity affects health. In this article, potential explanations for this relationship are examined separately for three age groups (18–35, 36–50, and 51–65). Mediation analyses based on the German Socio-economic Panel show an ‘immediate shock effect’ that occurs when a person becomes worried, as well as a ‘prolonged stress effect’ that sets in when job lo...
Published on May 1, 2019in Industrial and Labor Relations Review
Argyro Avgoustaki1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Hans T. W. Frankort5
Estimated H-index: 5
(City University London)
How does work effort affect employee outcomes? The authors bridge distinct literatures on the well-being versus career-related implications of work effort by analyzing the relation of overtime work and work intensity to both types of outcomes. They also extend examination of the role of discretion in modifying the effects of work effort from well-being to career-related outcomes. Using data from the fifth and sixth European Working Conditions Surveys, the authors show that greater work effort re...
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