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The Relationship Between Workplace Stressors and Mortality and Health Costs in the United States

Published on Feb 1, 2016in Management Science 3.54
· DOI :10.1287/mnsc.2014.2115
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Harvard University),
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
(Stanford University),
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Stanford University)
Even though epidemiological evidence links specific workplace stressors to health outcomes, the aggregate contribution of these factors to overall mortality and health spending in the United States is not known. In this paper, we build a model to estimate the excess mortality and incremental health expenditures associated with exposure to the following 10 workplace stressors: unemployment, lack of health insurance, exposure to shift work, long working hours, job insecurity, work–family conflict, low job control, high job demands, low social support at work, and low organizational justice. Our model uses input parameters obtained from publicly accessible data sources. We estimated health spending from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and joint probabilities of workplace exposures from the General Social Survey, and we conducted a meta-analysis of the epidemiological literature to estimate the relative risks of poor health outcomes associated with exposure to these stressors. The model was designed to overcome limitations with using inputs from multiple data sources. Specifically, the model separately derives optimistic and conservative estimates of the effect of multiple workplace exposures on health, and uses optimization to calculate upper and lower bounds around each estimate, which accounts for the correlation between exposures. We find that more than 120,000 deaths per year and approximately 5%–8% of annual healthcare costs are associated with and may be attributable to how U.S. companies manage their work forces. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to management practices as important contributors to health outcomes and costs in the United States. This paper was accepted by Dimitris Bertsimas, optimization .
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  • Citations (54)
Published on Nov 4, 2017
4 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2015
Joel Goh9
Estimated H-index: 9
Jeffrey Pfeffer82
Estimated H-index: 82
Stefanos A. Zenios27
Estimated H-index: 27
Extensive research focuses on the causes of workplace-induced stress. However, policy efforts to tackle the ever-increasing health costs and poor health outcomes in the United States have largely ignored the health effects of psychosocial workplace stressors such as high job demands, economic insecurity, and long work hours. Using meta-analysis, we summarize 228 studies assessing the effects of ten workplace stressors on four health outcomes. We find that job insecurity increases the odds of rep...
16 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 8, 2013in BMJ 23.56
Marianna Virtanen59
Estimated H-index: 59
(Finnish Institute of Occupational Health),
Solja T. Nyberg22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Finnish Institute of Occupational Health)
+ 43 AuthorsHermann Burr40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health)
To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease. A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review. We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Emb...
84 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Jpt Higgins1
Estimated H-index: 1
S. R. Green1
Estimated H-index: 1
Julian P. T. Higgins95
Estimated H-index: 95
624 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Journal of Applied Psychology 4.64
Jordan M. Robbins1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Transportation Security Administration),
Michael T. Ford14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University at Albany, SUNY),
Lois E. Tetrick35
Estimated H-index: 35
(GMU: George Mason University)
A growing body of research has suggested that the experience of injustice, psychological contract breach, or unfairness can adversely impact an employee’s health. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of unfairness perceptions on health, examining types of fairness and methodological characteristics as moderators. Results suggested that perceptions of unfairness were associated with indicators of physical and mental health. Furthermore, psychological contract breach contributed to ...
147 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 2011
Kenneth D. Kochanek18
Estimated H-index: 18
Jiaquan Xu19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 2 AuthorsHsiang-Ching Kung6
Estimated H-index: 6
OBJECTIVEs-This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2009 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. METHODS-Data in this report are based on death records comprising more than 96 percent of the demographic and medical files for all deaths in the United States in 2009. The records are weighted to independent control counts for 2009. Comparisons are made with 2008 preliminary ...
265 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 2009in American Journal of Public Health 4.38
Andrew P. Wilper11
Estimated H-index: 11
Steffie Woolhandler49
Estimated H-index: 49
+ 3 AuthorsDavid U. Himmelstein50
Estimated H-index: 50
Objectives. A 1993 study found a 25% higher risk of death among uninsured compared with privately insured adults. We analyzed the relationship between uninsurance and death with more recent data.Methods. We conducted a survival analysis with data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We analyzed participants aged 17 to 64 years to determine whether uninsurance at the time of interview predicted death.Results. Among all participants, 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] =...
253 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2009in The American Journal of Medicine 5.12
David U. Himmelstein50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Harvard University),
Deborah Thorne10
Estimated H-index: 10
(OU: Ohio University)
+ 1 AuthorsSteffie Woolhandler49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Harvard University)
Abstract Background Our 2001 study in 5 states found that medical problems contributed to at least 46.2% of all bankruptcies. Since then, health costs and the numbers of un- and underinsured have increased, and bankruptcy laws have tightened. Methods We surveyed a random national sample of 2314 bankruptcy filers in 2007, abstracted their court records, and interviewed 1032 of them. We designated bankruptcies as "medical" based on debtors' stated reasons for filing, income loss due to illness, an...
457 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2009in Quarterly Journal of Economics 7.86
Daniel C. Sullivan41
Estimated H-index: 41
(Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago),
Till von Wachter21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Columbia University)
We use administrative data on the quarterly employment and earnings of Pennsylvanian workers in the 1970s and 1980s matched to Social Security Administration death records covering 1980–2006 to estimate the effects of job displacement on mortality. We find that for high-seniority male workers, mortality rates in the year after displacement are 50%–100% higher than would otherwise have been expected. The effect on mortality hazards declines sharply over time, but even twenty years after displacem...
457 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 12, 2009in JAMA Internal Medicine 19.99
Akizumi Tsutsumi30
Estimated H-index: 30
Kazunori Kayaba30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 1 AuthorsShizukiyo Ishikawa33
Estimated H-index: 33
Background No prospective studies have examined the association between occupational stress according to the job demand−control model and the risk of stroke in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a multicenter community-based prospective study of 6553 Japanese male and female workers. Occupational stress was evaluated using a Japanese version of the job demand−control model questionnaire. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between occupational stress and s...
75 Citations Source Cite
Cited By54
Published on Apr 14, 2019in Western Journal of Communication
Christina G. Yoshimura (CSUSB: California State University, San Bernardino), Brian Heisterkamp (International Communication Association)
This study complements existing research on responses to work–family tension by illuminating the constitutive role of communication in framing this tension at work. We used a memorable-messages format to investigate the most memorable message 892 participants shared with coworkers regarding work–family conflict. We used thematic analysis to code messages, resulting in a model of 20 themes. Themes varied in their focus on independence vs. interdependence and perceived efficacy vs. perceived ineff...
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Published on May 22, 2019in The American economist
Comfort F. Ricketts2
Estimated H-index: 2
Randall C. Campbell8
Estimated H-index: 8
(MSU: Mississippi State University),
Jon P. Rezek8
Estimated H-index: 8
(ECU: East Carolina University)
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Published on May 17, 2019in Economic & Industrial Democracy 1.36
Christiane Lübke2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Duisburg-Essen)
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Published on May 1, 2019in Industrial and Labor Relations Review
Argyro Avgoustaki1
Estimated H-index: 1
Hans T. W. Frankort5
Estimated H-index: 5
(City University London)
How does work effort affect employee outcomes? The authors bridge distinct literatures on the well-being versus career-related implications of work effort by analyzing the relation of overtime work and work intensity to both types of outcomes. They also extend examination of the role of discretion in modifying the effects of work effort from well-being to career-related outcomes. Using data from the fifth and sixth European Working Conditions Surveys, the authors show that greater work effort re...
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Published on Mar 2, 2019in Journal of Business Ethics 2.92
M. Paula Fitzgerald4
Estimated H-index: 4
(WVU: West Virginia University),
Jeff Langenderfer10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Meredith College),
Megan Lynn Fitzgerald
Recent judicial rulings and changes in federal and state legislation have given for-profit corporations a growing list of rights and constitutional protections, including the right to practice religion free from many types of federal or state restriction. In this paper, we highlight the implications of these developments using Rawls’ (A theory of justice, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1971) Theory of Justice to explore the consequences of for-profit corporate religious freedom for consume...
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Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Social Issues 2.23
Peter Beattie2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CUHK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 7, 2019in Occupational Medicine 1.48
A Weinberg1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Salford),
J H Hudson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTU: Nottingham Trent University)
+ 1 AuthorsS B Chowdhury1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Manchester)
Background Annual costs to organisations of poor mental health are estimated to be between £33bn-£42bn. The UK’s National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has produced evidence-based guidance on improving employees’ psychological health, designed to encourage organisations to take preventative steps in tackling this high toll. However the extent of implementation is not known outside the National Health Service. Aims To assess the awareness and implementation of NICE guidance on workplac...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 3.77
Sophie Bostock7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UCL: University College London),
Alexandra D. Crosswell7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrew Steptoe111
Estimated H-index: 111
(UCL: University College London)
We investigated whether a mindfulness meditation program delivered via a smartphone application could improve psychological well-being, reduce job strain, and reduce ambulatory blood pressure during the workday. Participants were 238 healthy employees from two large United Kingdom companies that were randomized to a mindfulness meditation practice app or a wait-list control condition. The app offered 45 prerecorded 10- to 20-min guided audio meditations. Participants were asked to complete one m...
8 Citations Source Cite