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Natural Disasters, Armed Conflict, and Public Health

Published on Nov 7, 2013in The New England Journal of Medicine70.67
· DOI :10.1056/NEJMra1109877
Jennifer Leaning21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Debarati Guha-Sapir23
Estimated H-index: 23
Sources
Abstract
Global disasters, both natural and man-made, affect health in many ways, as reviewed in this article in the Global Health series.
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  • References (33)
  • Citations (169)
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References33
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#1Martin Gerdin (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 8
#2Andreas Wladis (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 15
Last. Johan von Schreeb (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 16
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Objective To assess the timing and activities of foreign field hospitals (FFH) deployed during the first month after the Haiti earthquake and to evaluate adherence to WHO/Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) guidelines. Results were compared with data from past sudden-onset disasters. Methods A systematic attempt was made to contact all relief actors within the health care sector involved in the 12 January through 12 February 2010 FFH deployment. This was done using an email-based questionnai...
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#2Femke VosH-Index: 7
Last. Sylvain PenserreH-Index: 1
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In 2011, 332 natural disasters1 were registered, less than the average annual disaster frequency observed from 2001 to 2010 (384). However, the human and economic impacts of the disasters in 2011 were massive. Natural disasters killed a total of 30 773 people and caused 244.7 million victims worldwide (see Figure 1). Economic damages from natural disasters were the highest ever registered, with an estimated US$ 366.1 billion [...]
158 Citations
#2Shisir Ranjan-DashH-Index: 1
Last. Debarati Guha-SapirH-Index: 23
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Objectives This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between exposure to floods and malnutrition in children aged 6-59 months in rural India. Research has focused exclusively on Bangladeshi children, and few controlled epidemiological studies are available. Method A community-based cross-sectional study of child nutritional status was carried out in 14 flooded and 18 non-flooded villages of Jagatsinghpur district (Orissa) within one month of the September 2008 floods, and ...
27 CitationsSource
#1Daniel R Feikin (Kenya Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 5
#2Kubaje Adazu (Kenya Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 17
Last. F LasersonKayla (Kenya Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 42
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. METHODS: In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25-29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced childre...
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#1Olivier Degomme (UCL: Université catholique de Louvain)H-Index: 9
#2Debarati Guha-Sapir (UCL: Université catholique de Louvain)H-Index: 23
Summary Background Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Methods Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the su...
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#1Nathan Ford (SFU: Simon Fraser University)H-Index: 59
#2Edward J. Mills (UBC: University of British Columbia)H-Index: 78
Last. Ross E. G. Upshur (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 47
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Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical ...
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The conventional method to collect data on the health, nutrition, and food security status of a population affected by an emergency is a 30 × 30 cluster survey. This sampling method can be time and resource intensive and, accordingly, may not be the most appropriate one when data are needed rapidly for decision making. In this study, we compare the precision, time and cost of the 30 × 30 cluster survey with two alternative sampling designs: a 33 × 6 cluster design (33 clusters, 6 observations pe...
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This paper focuses on the dilemma that humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs) face in their efforts to gain access to populations caught up in current wars. Narrow and broad concepts of humanitarian protection are discussed and it is argued that despite high levels of professionalism, the space for humanitarian action has constricted sharply since the events surrounding the attacks of 11 September 2001. Increasingly, aid workers are now being viewed with suspicion as agents of the gr...
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This article uses the metaphor of a pyramid to portray what constitutes humanitarian action. Whereas humanity forms the aim at the tip and international humanitarian law the basis, the sides are the principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence, which make the humanitarian endeavour possible.
13 CitationsSource
#1Kenneth V. Iserson (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 23
#2John C. Moskop (ECU: East Carolina University)H-Index: 19
This 2-article series offers a conceptual, historical, and moral analysis of the practice of triage. Part I distinguishes triage from related concepts, reviews the evolution of triage principles and practices, and describes the settings in which triage is commonly practiced. Part II identifies and examines the moral values and principles underlying the practice of triage.
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Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common psychological distress after natural disasters, which is persistent. Chronic PTSD leads to a heavy disease burden. The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and influencing factors of chronic PTSD among survivors in the hard-hit areas ten years after the Wenchuan earthquake. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on residents aged 16 or above in hard-hit areas through a multi-stage sampling approach t...
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Little scientific evidence exists on ways to decrease the psychological stress experienced by disaster responders, or how to maintain and improve their mental health. In an effort to grasp the current state of research, we examined research papers, agency reports, the manuals of aid organisations, and educational materials, in both English and Japanese. Using MEDLINE, Ichushi-Web (Japanese search engine), Google Scholar, websites of the United Nations agencies, and the database of the Grants Sys...
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#1Gaowa BaiH-Index: 1
#2Toshiro NikiH-Index: 27
Last. Toshio HattoriH-Index: 31
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As described in Japanese essay (Hojoki), written around 1200, various disasters such as big fires, earthquakes, and famines have occurred in Japan. Asian countries have been suffering from the disasters; furthermore, natural disasters are increasing due to global warming. Because tropical-infectious diseases are often disaster-related infectious diseases (DRIDs), the strategies against the former kind of disease could be applicable to DRIDs. Meteorological analysis of the occurrence of DRIDs usi...
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#1Yonis J Hassan (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)H-Index: 1
#2Satin Zarkar (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)
Last. Timothy R. Rice (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)H-Index: 8
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#1Amy Henneman (Palm Beach Atlantic University)H-Index: 4
#2Krisy-Ann Thornby (Palm Beach Atlantic University)H-Index: 3
Last. Justine M. Latif (Palm Beach Atlantic University)
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Abstract Introduction Natural disasters present unique challenges for healthcare training programs. Limited literature has been published regarding the impact of natural disasters on pharmacy residency training. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of perceived impact natural disasters have on pharmacy resident stress and which factors contribute to any perceived change in stress. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted via a survey distributed to pharmacy residents whos...
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#1Sarah Bezek (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)H-Index: 3
Last. Joy M. MackeyH-Index: 1
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Emergency medical services are a key element in health systems for the evaluation and treatment of patients exposed to highly infectious diseases or bioterrorism agents. Triage and early identification at any point of care can have a significant impact on the prevention and management of these diseases. This chapter reviews triage practices, including early isolation and decontamination, of highly infectious diseases and bioterrorism agents at different health system levels.
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