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Transferring the Retail Format Successfully into Foreign Countries

Published on Mar 1, 2013in Journal of International Marketing 3.38
· DOI :10.1509/jim.12.0148
Bernhard Swoboda23
Estimated H-index: 23
Stefan Elsner4
Estimated H-index: 4
Abstract Research shows that most retailers expand abroad by transferring some elements of their format, and therefore their value chain, unchanged, while adapting other elements. However, little is known about how strongly a retail format's standardized or adapted elements affect performance in a foreign country. To shed light on this issue, this study focuses on the design of important processes and offerings, as both determine retailers' efficiency and sales. This study proposes that successful retailers build on the unchanged know-how parts of the format by combining more standardized core elements with adapted peripheral elements. The authors draw from a survey of 102 international retailers and interviews with 126 executives conducted at their headquarters. The results show that retailers transfer offers (marketing programs) and processes (marketing and supply chain) differently and hierarchically; that is, peripheral elements are allowed to vary, whereas core elements are transferred in a more stan...
  • References (126)
  • Citations (25)
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Long Range Planning 3.36
Bernhard Swoboda23
Estimated H-index: 23
Stefan Elsner4
Estimated H-index: 4
Dirk Morschett21
Estimated H-index: 21
This study examines the international strategies of retailers that have been internationalising aggressively, especially since the 1990s. By applying the Integration-Responsiveness (I-R) framework, we hypothesise that retailers use all four strategies (international, global, multinational and transnational) but that their preferences for these strategies vary across retail sectors (food and non-food). From the inter-sector-based and sector-specific perspectives, we also hypothesise that the stra...
Andrew F. Hayes40
Estimated H-index: 40
(OSU: Ohio State University),
Kristopher J. Preacher35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Virtually all discussions and applications of statistical mediation analysis have been based on the condition that the independent variable is dichotomous or continuous, even though investigators frequently are interested in testing mediation hypotheses involving a multicategorical independent variable (such as two or more experimental conditions relative to a control group). We provide a tutorial illustrating an approach to estimation of and inference about direct, indirect, and total effects i...
Published on Sep 1, 2014in Journal of International Marketing 3.38
David A. Griffith44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Lehigh University),
Boryana V. Dimitrova4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Drexel University)
Abstract Psychic distance is a key element in the field of international marketing. Unfortunately, the literature exhibits a lack of consistency with respect to its effects. To help increase understanding of the influence of psychic distance, the authors investigate business and cultural psychic distance as separate constructs. They develop a model in which an export manager's business and cultural psychic distance influences the structuring of the export relationship (i.e., whether it has compl...
Published on Jun 22, 2012in Management Decision 1.96
Jesús C. Peña-Vinces6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Seville),
Gabriel Cepeda-Carrión13
Estimated H-index: 13
Wynne W. Chin37
Estimated H-index: 37
Purpose – This paper's aim is to evaluate the effect of the use of information technology and communications (ITC) on the international competitiveness of firms in developing countries. The study also seeks to evaluate other factors that allow or condition the use of ITC such as: human resources, collaboration of the industrial sector, and local environment.Design/methodology/approach – These effects are examined through an empirical research of 100 small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) from ...
Published on Jun 1, 2012in Journal of Retailing 3.67
A. George Assaf27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst),
Alexander Josiassen17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CBS: Copenhagen Business School)
+ 1 AuthorsCarlos Pestana Barros44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Technical University of Lisbon)
This paper offers a fresh approach to the literature examining the effect of internationalization on retail-firm performance. We draw on the organizational learning theory to test the moderating effect of four variables which are hypothesized to affect the performance of internationalizing retailers through facilitating the transfer of learning in international markets. The study innovates by introducing a new performance metric, and an advanced methodology to account for the dynamic aspects of ...
Published on Dec 1, 2011in Journal of International Business Studies 7.72
Anna Jonsson9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Lund University),
Nicolai J. Foss72
Estimated H-index: 72
(CBS: Copenhagen Business School)
Business organizations may expand internationally by replicating a part of their value chain, such as a sales and marketing format, in other countries. However, little is known regarding how such “international replicators” build a format for replication, or how they can adjust it in order to adapt to local environments and under the impact of new learning. To illuminate these issues, we draw on a longitudinal in-depth study of Swedish home furnishing giant IKEA, involving more than 70 interview...
Published on Oct 1, 2011in International Business Review 3.64
Stefan Schmid10
Estimated H-index: 10
(ESCP Europe),
Thomas Kotulla1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ESCP Europe)
When going and operating abroad, firms face the challenge of finding the optimal balance between standardizing and adapting their marketing strategies across national borders in order to be successful. In this contribution, we present the major results of a systematic literature analysis in the field of international marketing standardization/adaptation. Based on our findings, we introduce a theoretical framework combined with the concept of situation-strategy fit. This framework serves as a bas...
Steven Burt12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Stirling),
Ulf Johansson20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Lund University),
Åsa Thelander6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Lund University)
Abstract IKEA is often cited as an example of a ‘global’ retailer which pursues a similar ‘standardized’ approach in every market. This paper systematically assesses the degree of standardisation (and adaptation) of four commonly identified retail marketing mix activities – merchandise, location and store format, the selling and service environment, and market communication – within three countries. These countries – Sweden, the UK and China – represent different cultural settings and are market...
Published on Dec 1, 2010in Journal of Retailing 3.67
Matthew T. Seevers5
Estimated H-index: 5
(College of Business Administration),
Steven J. Skinner17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UK: University of Kentucky),
Robert Dahlstrom19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UK: University of Kentucky)
Abstract This study employs social capital theory to examine how a retail buyer's network of industry peers influences retail performance. We propose that performance is enhanced by three network resources – access , referral , and influence – that result from two structural facets of a retail buyer's network: contact diversity and contact position . We test the model by collecting sociometric data that measures interpersonal ties among 84 retail buyers operating in the same geographic territory...
Published on Sep 1, 2010in Journal of Management 9.06
Oliver Schilke20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles),
Anthony Goerzen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Queen's University)
This research conceptualizes and operationalizes alliance management capability. The authors develop alliance management capability as a second-order construct to capture the degree to which organizations possess relevant management routines that enable them to effectively manage their portfolio of strategic alliances. In addition to identifying and measuring specific organizational routines as critical dimensions of alliance management capability, the authors advance knowledge on the performanc...
Cited By25
Boryana V. Dimitrova4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Drexel University),
Brent Smith (Emerson College), Saejoon Kim (College of Business Administration)
Linnea Haag (Linköping University), Uni Martinsen5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Linköping University),
Erik Sandberg8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Linköping University)
Market-oriented aspects of retail internationalisation have received a lot of research attention since the 1990s. However, beyond these aspects lies also supply-chain oriented capabilities that are ...
Published on Mar 12, 2019in Journal of Global Marketing
Boryana V. Dimitrova4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Drexel University),
Saejoon Kim (College of Business Administration), Brent Smith4
Estimated H-index: 4
(""St. Joe's"": Saint Joseph's University)
AbstractThe performance outcomes of retail internationalization have attracted considerable scholarly interest, but studies have offered differing perspectives and findings on this relationship. In an effort to fill this gap on the topic, we posit that the relationship between the degree of retail internationalization and performance exhibits an S-curve shape. Using a sample of 18 international retailers with operations on six continents for the period 2001–2015, we find evidence of the S-curve ...
Published on May 13, 2019in International Marketing Review 3.45
Carol Finnegan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCCS: University of Colorado Colorado Springs),
Seng‐Su Tsang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTUST: National Taiwan University of Science and Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsJean Chang (NTUST: National Taiwan University of Science and Technology)
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust examination of the factors that accelerate/decelerate the divestment timing of retail banners in international markets. Design/methodology/approach The sample represents 3,235 foreign market banner operations of 132 international retailers across 144 countries using an accelerated failure time (AFT) parametric survival modelling technique. Findings Banner divestment is accelerated by both weak financial performance and smaller size. Furthe...
Published on May 1, 2019in Journal of Retailing 3.67
Pravin Nath3
Estimated H-index: 3
(OU: University of Oklahoma),
Ahmet H. Kirca11
Estimated H-index: 11
(MSU: Michigan State University)
+ 1 AuthorsTrina Larsen Andras6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Drexel University)
Abstract Global retailers often face an important decision about the extent to which they should standardize or adapt their retail banners, a choice that the authors refer to as retail banner standardization (RBS). Drawing on the international marketing and retailing literatures, this study investigates how RBS affects the performance of global retailers in a longitudinal sample of 69 global retailers from multiple countries and sectors, across ten years. Findings indicate that the role of banne...
Published on Sep 6, 2018
Elzė Rudienė (Vilnius University), Mangirdas Morkūnas (Vilnius University), Viktorija Skvarciany2
Estimated H-index: 2
(VGTU: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University)
Published on May 15, 2018in Cogent Business & Management
Valtteri Kaartemo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UTU: University of Turku)
AbstractThis article analyses and develops the concept of international service based on a review of 407 articles published in high-ranking international business and service research journals. The review confirms that usage of the key concept of international service is ambiguous, and a new definition is proposed, characterising international service as a value co-creation process between two or more resource-integrating actors that do not share influential institutional arrangements because of...
Published on Feb 1, 2018in International Business Review 3.64
Alexander T. Mohr15
Estimated H-index: 15
(WU: Vienna University of Economics and Business),
Georgios Batsakis5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Brunel University London)
Despite the fact that many firms simultaneously expand into multiple new markets, we know very little about why firms choose this type of international expansion instead of sequentially entering new markets. Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) we argue that in order to engage in simultaneous international expansion firms have to be able to draw on intangible assets, be financially strong, and have international experience that will enable them to reduce and/or shoulder the strains on manage...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Bernhard Swoboda23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Trier),
Carolina Sinning (University of Trier), Johannes Hirschmann2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Trier)
Die Internationalisierung im Online-Commerce wird im Vergleich zum Offline-Commerce als dynamisch charakterisiert. Eine empirische Betrachtung dieser steht jedoch weitgehend aus. Dieser Beitrag dient dazu, das International Market Development im Online- und Offline-Commerce zu beleuchten, um Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten aufzuzeigen. Ein Literaturruckblick zur Online-Internationalisierung bildet die Grundlage, wahrend darauffolgend die einzelnen strategischen Internationalisierungsentscheidun...
Syed Tariq Anwar6
Estimated H-index: 6
(WT: West Texas A&M University)
Abstract The purpose of this case-based research is to analyze and discuss Alibaba Group (hereafter Alibaba) and its entrepreneurial growth and global expansion in B2B/B2C markets. The paper uses company and industry-specific data and surveys to analyze a fast growing Chinese B2B/B2C firm and its internationalization and expansion in global markets. Findings of the work reveal that in a short time, Alibaba has become a major entrepreneurial icon and global player and continues to grow worldwide ...