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ABSTRACT
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Abstract
Preceramic polymers were proposed over 30 years ago as precursors for the fabrication of mainly Si-based advanced ceramics, generally denoted as polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs). The polymer to ceramic transformation process enabled significant technological breakthroughs in ceramic science and technology, such as the development of ceramic fibers, coatings, or ceramics stable at ultrahigh temperatures (up to 2000°C) with respect to decomposition, crystallization, phase separation, and creep. In recent years, several important advances have been achieved such as the discovery of a variety of functional properties associated with PDCs. Moreover, novel insights into their structure at the nanoscale level have contributed to the fundamental understanding of the various useful and unique features of PDCs related to their high chemical durability or high creep resistance or semiconducting behavior. From the processing point of view, preceramic polymers have been used as reactive binders to produce technical ceramics, they have been manipulated to allow for the formation of ordered pores in the meso-range, they have been tested for joining advanced ceramic components, and have been processed into bulk or macroporous components. Consequently, possible fields of applications of PDCs have been extended significantly by the recent research and development activities. Several key engineering fields suitable for application of PDCs include high-temperature-resistant materials (energy materials, automotive, aerospace, etc.), hard materials, chemical engineering (catalyst support, food- and biotechnology, etc.), or functional materials in electrical engineering as well as in micro/nanoelectronics. The science and technological development of PDCs are highly interdisciplinary, at the forefront of micro- and nanoscience and technology, with expertise provided by chemists, physicists, mineralogists, and materials scientists, and engineers. Moreover, several specialized industries have already commercialized components based on PDCs, and the production and availability of the precursors used has dramatically increased over the past few years. In this feature article, we highlight the following scientific issues related to advanced PDCs research: (1) General synthesis procedures to produce silicon-based preceramic polymers. (2) Special microstructural features of PDCs. (3) Unusual materials properties of PDCs, that are related to their unique nanosized microstructure that makes preceramic polymers of great and topical interest to researchers across a wide spectrum of disciplines. (4) Processing strategies to fabricate ceramic components from preceramic polymers. (5) Discussion and presentation of several examples of possible real-life applications that take advantage of the special characteristics of preceramic polymers. Note: In the past, a wide range of specialized international symposia have been devoted to PDCs, in particular organized by the American Ceramic Society, the European Materials Society, and the Materials Research Society. Most of the reviews available on PDCs are either not up to date or deal with only a subset of preceramic polymers and ceramics (e.g., silazanes to produce SiCN-based ceramics). Thus, this review is focused on a large number of novel data and developments, and contains materials from the literature but also from sources that are not widely available.
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References433
Dietmar Seyferth52
Estimated H-index: 52
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Gary H. Wiseman9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology),
Christian Prud’homme1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Silicon nitride, Si3N4, is of great current interest as a material of high thermal and oxidative stability and high hardness for ceramics, electronic and other applications. 1 Silicon nitride may be prepared by the reaction of elemental silicon with gaseous nitrogen or ammonia at elevated temperatures. Ceramic bodies may be produced directly (reaction sintering) or, alternatively, Si3N4 powder may...
Ref 9Cited 9 Download Pdf Cite this paper
L.A. Harrah1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
J.M. Zeigler1
Estimated H-index: 1
We have examined the emission spectra of a variety of polysilanes as thin films and solutions. The solution fluorescence thermochromism provides evidence to support the rotational isomeric state model used to interpret the absorption spectrum. The structured character and low yield of phosphorescence in the alkyl polysilanes suggest that the triplet is the immediate precursor to photochemical scis...
Cited 2 Source
Shohei Inoue41
Estimated H-index: 41
(University of Tokyo),
Takuzo Aida82
Estimated H-index: 82
(University of Tokyo)
Heterocyclic compounds which can undergo ring-opening polymerization by anionic (nucleophilic) mechanisms are more limited than those polymerized by cationic (electrophilic) mechanisms.(1) Table 2.1 displays the representative types of monomers for anionic ring-opening polymerization. Some of the monomers can be polymerized by both anionic and cationic mechanisms.
Ref 2Cited 15 Download Pdf Cite this paper
2016 in Journal of Materials Science [IF: 2.60]
O. Dernovsek3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Erlangen-Nuremberg),
José Carlos Bressiani18
Estimated H-index: 18
(National Nuclear Energy Commission),
Ana Helena A. Bressiani17
Estimated H-index: 17
(National Nuclear Energy Commission)
... (2 others)
Manufacturing of novel reaction bonded Niobium Carbide (NbC) containing ceramic composites derived from polymer/filler mixtures was investigated. Poly(methylsiloxane) filled with 40 vol.% of a mixture of metallic Niobium (Nb) (reactive filler) and alumina powder (inert filler) was pyrolysed in inert atmosphere up to 1450°C. During pyrolysis metallic niobium reacted with carbon from the decompositi...
Ref 3Cited 22 Source Cite this paper
C.-J. Chu2
Estimated H-index: 2
("University of California, Berkeley"),
G. D. Soraru2
Estimated H-index: 2
("University of California, Berkeley"),
F. Babonneau2
Estimated H-index: 2
("University of California, Berkeley")
... (1 others)
Advanced ceramics like carbides and nitrides can be obtained by the pyrolysis of metal-organic polymers. An intermediate amorphous phase is obtained after the removal of the organics and before crystallization. They can be considered as a new family of disordered materials called Amorphous Covalent Ceramics (ACC). By this polymer process, amorphous SiC films have been deposited on different substr...
Ref 6Cited 7 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Barry C. Arkles1
Estimated H-index: 1
Linear polysilane-siloxane copolymers having remarkable sensitivity to radiation have the general formula [(SiMe.sub.2).sub.m ].sub.a [(OSiMeR).sub.n ].sub.b wherein Me is a methyl group, R is lower alkyl or phenyl, m=4 to about 30 inclusive, n=1 to about 100 inclusive, a and b may each be 1 to about 10 inclusive, and a units alternate with b units. The copolymers of the invention may be in the fo...
Ref 3Cited 13 Download Pdf
Hussein Termoss4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Lyon),
Mikhael Bechelany3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Lyon),
Bérangère Toury8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Lyon)
... (4 others)
Abstract The present paper is focused on the synthesis of a series of poly[ N -(alkylimino)alanes] of the type [HAlNR] n as preceramic polymers for the preparation of aluminum nitride (AlN). Polymers were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), liquid-state 1 H and 13 C NMR spectrometry and elemental analyses. The polymers were prepared in different physical states go...
Ref 24Cited 9 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Tanguy Rouxel26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Georges Massouras1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
G. D. Soraru6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Trento)
The high temperature behavior of a sol-gel derived silicon oxycarbide glass containing 12 at.% carbon has been characterized by means of creep and in-situ ultrasonic echography measurements. Temperature induced changes include structural relaxation and densification from 1000 to 1200°C, and crystallization to form a fine and homogeneous β-SiC/glass-matrix nanocomposite with 2.5 nm large crystals a...
Cited 83 Source Cite this paper
2016 in Journal of Materials Science [IF: 2.60]
Toshikazu Nishimura1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Rainer Haug4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Max Planck Society),
Joachim Bill35
Estimated H-index: 35
(University of Stuttgart)
... (2 others)
Cited 4 Download Pdf
Norman Grassie1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Elizabeth Morrison1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract : A report is given of work involving the thermal degradation of a series of styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymers of various compositions but having molecular weights of the same order. Consideration is given to the nature of the changes in molecular weight during degradation, the nature of the products of degradation and the measurement of rates.
Cited 69 Source
Cited by622
Carbon fibers are outstanding reinforcements for ceramic components due to their excellent creep and long-term thermochemical and thermomechanical stability. Nevertheless, these properties are dramatically downgraded if the unprotected fibers are exposed to an oxidative or corrosive environment. Thin ceramic coatings can improve the corrosion resistance and tailor the fiber/matrix interface in ord...
Ref 12 Source Cite this paper
Four-dimensional (4D) printing involves conventional 3D printing followed by a shape-morphing step. It enables more complex shapes to be created than is possible with conventional 3D printing. However, 3D-printed ceramic precursors are usually difficult to be deformed, hindering the development of 4D printing for ceramics. To overcome this limitation, we developed elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane...
Ref 39 Download Pdf Cite this paper
2018 in Ceramics International [IF: 2.99]
Abstract 1D nanostructures of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM) are tested as thermochemical catalyst for CO 2 splitting. The manganite precursors were incorporated into a ceramic silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) matrix at two different stages during its synthesis to form the nanocomposites. As a result, the LSM nanostructures decorate the large-size pores of the SiOC matrix in form of 1D nanofibers an...
Ref 65 Source Cite this paper