Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism about Race

Published on Dec 1, 2014in Philosophy of Science 0.97
· DOI :10.1086/678314
Jonathan Michael Kaplan10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther13
Estimated H-index: 13
Abstract
This paper distinguishes three concepts of “race”: bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A. W. F. Edwards’s 2003 response to Lewontin’s 1972 paper, and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating the relevance of these scientific discussions for political positions and a post-racial future.
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References53
Published on Jan 1, 2013in The Journal of Philosophy
Adam Hochman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Sydney)
22 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2000
Jonathan Kaplan1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Jonathan Michael Kaplan1
Estimated H-index: 1
16 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Ethnicity & Disease 1.05
Nina T. Harawa21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Chandra L. Ford17
Estimated H-index: 17
The persistence of black/white disparities in health outcomes has led some to question the approaches public health, biomedical and clinical researchers use to classify, describe, and analyze race. Although these fields appear ready for the emergence of new strategies for studying race, they must first develop a solid understanding of the historical bases for the concept. This article adds to the health disparities discourse by explaining the origins of the US race and ethnicity concepts and cla...
21 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2009
Joshua Glasgow1
Estimated H-index: 1
Social commentators have long asked whether racial categories should be conserved or eliminated from our practices, discourse, institutions, and perhaps even private thoughts. In A Theory of Race, Joshua Glasgow argues that this set of choices unnecessarily presents us with too few options. Using both traditional philosophical tools and recent psychological research to investigate folk understandings of race, Glasgow argues that, as ordinarily conceived, race is an illusion. However, our pressin...
54 Citations
Published on Jun 24, 2011
Ann Morning14
Estimated H-index: 14
List of Illustrations Acknowledgments 1. Introduction: What Is Race? 2. What Do We Know about Scientific and Popular Concepts of Race? 3. Textbook Race: Lessons on Human Difference 4. Teaching Race: Scientists on Human Difference 5. Learning Race: Students on Human Difference 6. Race Concepts beyond the Classroom 7. Conclusion: The Redemption of Essentialism Appendix A. Textbook Sample Selection and List Appendix B. Interview Research Design and Methodology Appendix C. Faculty Questionnaire Appe...
85 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 17, 1996
Kwame Anthony Appiah1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Amy Gutmann22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
David B. Wilkins10
Estimated H-index: 10
In America today, the problem of achieving racial justice - whether through "colour-blind" policies or through affirmative action - provokes more noisy name-calling than fruitful deliberation. In "Colour conscious", K. Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann, two eminent moral and political philosophers, seek to clear the ground for a discussion of the place of race in politics and in our moral lives. Provocative and insightful, their essays tackle different aspects of the question of racial justice; tog...
183 Citations
Published on Jan 31, 2009
Jennifer Elaine Reardon1
Estimated H-index: 1
In the summer of 1991, population geneticists and evolutionary biologists proposed to archive human genetic diversity by collecting the genomes of "isolated indigenous populations." Their initiative, which became known as the Human Genome Diversity Project, generated early enthusiasm from those who believed it would enable huge advances in our understanding of human evolution. However, vocal criticism soon emerged. Physical anthropologists accused Project organizers of reimporting racist categor...
262 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1992
Richard C Lewontin49
Estimated H-index: 49
291 Citations
Published on May 6, 2014
Nicholas Wade1
Estimated H-index: 1
64 Citations
Published on Aug 2, 2013
Pascale Gerbault12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University College London),
Mark G. Thomas69
Estimated H-index: 69
(University College London)
This article is a revision of the previous edition article by J.L. Mountain, volume 10, pp. 6984–6991, © 2001, Elsevier Ltd.
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Cited By14
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Science Education 3.04
Brian M. Donovan6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Stanford University)
Even though human racial difference has been a longstanding topic of the school biology curriculum, there is little evidence that contemporary biology textbooks challenge stereotypical racial beliefs that are based in biological thinking. Rather, the modern biology curriculum may be a place where such beliefs about race are perpetuated unwittingly. Drawing upon a theoretical framework of racial conceptualization based in psychological essentialism, this paper argues that biology textbook curricu...
10 Citations Source Cite
Michael D. Edge10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Stanford University),
Noah A. Rosenberg47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Stanford University)
Researchers in many fields have considered the meaning of two results about genetic variation for concepts of “race.” First, at most genetic loci, apportionments of human genetic diversity find that worldwide populations are genetically similar. Second, when multiple genetic loci are examined, it is possible to distinguish people with ancestry from different geographical regions. These two results raise an important question about human phenotypic diversity: To what extent do populations typical...
9 Citations Source Cite
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of California, Santa Cruz),
Ryan Giordano3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of California, Berkeley)
+ 1 AuthorsRasmus Nielsen105
Estimated H-index: 105
(University of California, Berkeley)
Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R. A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and the...
12 Citations Source Cite
Abstract In this paper, I draw upon debates about race in biology and philosophy as well as the concepts of ineliminable pluralism and psychological essentialism to outline the necessary subject matter knowledge that teachers should possess if they desire to: (i) increase student understanding of scientific research on genetic and behavioral variation in humans; and (ii) attenuate inegalitarian beliefs about race amongst students.
10 Citations Source Cite
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of California, Santa Cruz),
Roberta L. Millstein10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of California, Davis),
Rasmus Nielsen105
Estimated H-index: 105
(University of California, Berkeley)
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Jonathan Michael Kaplan10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Oregon State University),
Joshua A. Banta9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Texas at Tyler)
Lewis et al. (2011) attempted to restore the reputation of Samuel George Morton, a 19th century physician who reported on the skull sizes of different folk-races. Whereas Gould (1978) claimed that Morton’s conclusions were invalid because they reflected unconscious bias, Lewis et al. alleged that Morton’s findings were, in fact, supported, and Gould’s analysis biased. We take strong exception to Lewis et al.’s thesis that Morton was “right.” We maintain that Gould was right to reject Morton’s an...
5 Citations Source Cite
Abstract In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections ‘the discreteness objection’, ‘the visibility objection’, ‘the very important objection’, and ‘the objectively real objection.’ After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical...
8 Citations Source Cite
Abstract Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism—the view that race is a valid biological category—in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies ‘races’ as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's n...
3 Citations Source Cite