Match!

The Influence of Experience and Deliberate Practice on the Development of Superior Expert Performance

Published on Jan 1, 2006
· DOI :10.1017/CBO9780511816796.038
K. Anders Ericsson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(FSU: Florida State University)
Abstract
There are several factors that influence the level of professional achievement. First and foremost, extensive experience of activities in a domain is necessary to reach very high levels of performance. Extensive experience in a domain does not, however, invariably lead to expert levels of achievement. When individuals are first introduced to a professional domain after completing their basic training and formal education, they often work as apprentices and are supervised by more-experienced professionals as they accomplish their work-related responsibilities. After months of experience, they typically attain an acceptable level of proficiency, and with longer experience, often years, they are able to work as independent professionals. At that time most professionals reach a stable, average level of performance, and then they maintain this pedestrian level for the rest of their careers. In contrast, some continue to improve and eventually reach the highest levels of professional mastery. Traditionally, individual differences in the performance of professionals have been explained by an account given by Galton (1869/1979, see Ericsson, 2003a, for a description). According to this view, every healthy person will improve initially through experience, but these improvements are eventually limited by innate factors that cannot be changed through training; hence attainable performance is constrained by one's basic endowments, such as abilities, mental capacities, and innate talents. This general view also explains age-related declines in professional achievement, owing to the inevitable degradation of general capacities and processes with age (see also Krampe & Charness, Chapter 40).
  • References (74)
  • Citations (875)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
307 Citations
1,557 Citations
2,224 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References74
Newest
#1Nicola J. HodgesH-Index: 33
#2A. M. WilliamsH-Index: 15
Preface - NICOLA HODGES and MARK WILLIAMS I. PRESENTING INFORMATION 1. The roles and uses of augmented feedback in motor skill acquisition - RICHARD MAGILL and DAVID ANDERSON 2. Mixing it up a little: How to schedule observational practice - NICOLE ONG and NICOLA HODGES 3. Attentional focus affects movement efficiency - KEITH LOHSE, GABRIELE WULF and REBECCA LEWTHWAITE 4. Advances in implicit motor learning - RICHARD S. W. MASTERS and JAMIE POOLTON II: OPTIMIZING PRACTICE CONDITIONS 5. Schedulin...
299 Citations
#1Robert R. Hoffman (Adelphi University)H-Index: 18
Experts, who were the sole active dispensers of certain kinds of knowledge in the days before A1, have now often assumed a rather passive role. They relay their knowledge to various novices, knowledge engineers, experimental psychologists or cognitivists - or other experts - involved in the development and understanding of expert systems. This book aims to achieve a balance between experimentalists and theoreticians who deal with expertise. It tries to establish the benefits to society of an adv...
115 Citations
#1K. Anders Ericsson (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 53
179 CitationsSource
#1Sara L. Bengtsson (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 12
#2Zoltan Nagy (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 23
Last. Fredrik Ullén (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 34
view all 6 authors...
Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated effects of piano practicing in childhood, adolescence and adulthood on white matter, and found positive correlations between practicing and fiber tract organization in different regions for each age period. For childhood, practicing correlations were extensive and included the pyramidal tract, which was more structured in pianists than in non-musicians. Long-term training within critical developmental periods may thus induce regionally specific pla...
717 CitationsSource
#1Jean Côté (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 50
#2K. Anders Ericsson (Queen's University)H-Index: 1
Last. Madelyn P. Law (Queen's University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
A new interview procedure is proposed for collecting valid information on the acquisition of high-level performance in sport. The procedure elicits verifiable information on the development of athletes' achievements in their primary sport, as well as factors that might influence performance, including involvement in other sporting activities, injuries, physical growth and quality of training resources. Interviewed athletes also describe their engagement in specific training and other relevant ac...
200 CitationsSource
#1Neil Charness (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 42
#2Michael Tuffiash (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 5
Last. Ekaterina Vasyukova (MSU: Moscow State University)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
SUMMARY Two large, diverse samples of tournament-rated chess players were asked to estimate the frequency and duration of their engagement in a variety of chess-related activities. Variables representing accumulated time spent on serious study alone, tournament play, and formal instruction were all significant bivariate correlates of chess skill as measured by tournament performance ratings. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that among the activities measured, serious study alone was the...
169 CitationsSource
#1E. Ashby Plant (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 37
#2K. Anders Ericsson (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 53
Last. Kia Asberg (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
The current work draws upon the theoretical framework of deliberate practice in order to clarify why the amount of study by college students is a poor predictor of academic performance. A model was proposed where performance in college, both cumulatively and for a current semester, was jointly determined by previous knowledge and skills as well as factors indicating quality (e.g., study environment) and quantity of study. The findings support the proposed model and indicate that the amount of st...
218 CitationsSource
#1K. Anders Ericsson (FSU: Florida State University)H-Index: 53
#2Peter F. Delaney (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 17
Last. Rajan Mahadevan (UT: University of Tennessee)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
After extensive laboratory testing of the famous memorist Rajan, Thompson, Cowan, and Frieman (1993) proposed that he was innately endowed with a superior memory capacity for digits and letters and thus violated the hypothesis that exceptional memory fully reflects acquired ?skilled memory.? We successfully replicated the empirical phenomena that led them to their conclusions. From additional analyses and new experiments, we found support for an alternative hypothesis, namely that Rajan’s superi...
61 CitationsSource
The factors that cause large individual differences in professional achievement are only partially understood. Nobody becomes an outstanding professional without experience, but extensive experience does not invariably lead people to become experts. When individuals are first introduced to a professional domain after completing their education, they are often overwhelmed and rely on help from others to accomplish their responsibilities. After months or years of experience, they attain an accepta...
1,535 CitationsSource
#1Véronique Moulaert (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 17
#2Maarten G. M. Verwijnen (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 3
Last. Albert J. J. A. Scherpbier (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 56
view all 4 authors...
INTRODUCTION: Ericsson and colleagues introduced the term 'deliberate practice' to describe training activities that are especially designed to maximise improvement. They stressed that how much one practises is as important as how one practises. Essential aspects of deliberate practice are the presence of well defined tasks, informative feedback, repetition, self-reflection, motivation and endurance. Deliberate practice is often difficult, laborious, and even unpleasant. Previous studies in the ...
65 CitationsSource
Cited By875
Newest
Abstract Drawing upon activity theory, specifically the rules for participation and the division of labor, we make a case for opening up the pedagogies of rehearsal to a broader range of collaborative interactions. By identifying a lack of theoretical clarity in the existing literature on rehearsal and providing an example of a more collective and multivoiced approach, we aim to advance theoretical considerations guiding practice-based pedagogies of teacher education.
Source
#1Peter F. Renshaw (Macquarie University)H-Index: 2
#2Mark W. Wiggins (Macquarie University)H-Index: 19
Abstract Cue utilization processes may enable learners to acquire technical skills more readily even during the very early stages of learning a task but there is a paucity of applied experimental evidence as to when cue utilization becomes operative during the initial stages of technical skill acquisition. Civil and military remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) occurrence analyses have indicated that an operator's ability to utilize and integrate a more constrained range of sensory cues compared to c...
Source
#1Nadine Rauh (Chemnitz University of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Madlen Günther (Chemnitz University of Technology)H-Index: 6
Last. Josef F. Krems (Chemnitz University of Technology)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Abstract The challenge of reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions has become increasingly important in recent years. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are a promising alternative having the potential for a CO2 neutral and sustainable utilization over the whole vehicle lifetime. However, BEVs limited range is still considered as one important usage barrier. Reducing drivers' experience of range stress is discussed as one possibility to overcome this barrier. The objective of the present resear...
Source
#1Stefanie Mauksch (Leipzig University)H-Index: 5
Last. Theodore J. GordonH-Index: 13
view all 3 authors...
Abstract While decision research tends to treat the question of expertise with suspicion, the capacity of experts within the wider, applied field of foresight often remains unquestioned. In this review of expert identification methods, we share the positive assessment of expert judgment for exploring plausible conditions of the future. However, given the contested status of expertise, it is crucial to know how a particular mode of recruitment, or (more often) a combination of diverse methods, se...
Source
#1Katrina Sabah (University of Regensburg)H-Index: 1
#2Thomas Dolk (University of Regensburg)H-Index: 12
Last. Gesine Dreisbach (University of Regensburg)H-Index: 27
view all 4 authors...
Content variability was previously suggested to promote stronger learning effects in cognitive training whereas less variability incurred transfer costs (Sabah et al. Psychological Research, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-018-1006-7, 2018). Here, we expanded these findings by additionally examining the role of learners' control in short-term task-switching training by comparing voluntary task-switching to a yoked control forced task-switching condition. To this end, four training conditions were...
Source
Source
#1Arne Güllich (BCU: Birmingham City University)
#2Robin Cronauer (BCU: Birmingham City University)
Last. Christopher Miller (BCU: Birmingham City University)
view all 5 authors...
The hypothesis that sport-specific skill learning is correlated with earlier childhood multi-sport practice experiences was empirically studied among youth soccer players. Fourteen youth soccer coa...
Source
#1Timothy Anderson (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 20
#2Matthew R. Perlman (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 2
Last. Andrew S. McClintock (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 6
view all 4 authors...
OBJECTIVE: Facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS) video stimuli were used to develop and test a brief training component of observational modeling with repeated practice. Specifically, this study hypothesized that a brief training of video modeling therapeutic use of interpersonal skills, combined with repeated practice, would result in improved FIS responses (relative to control). METHOD: Undergraduates (n = 101) with expressed interest in the helping professions were randomly assigned to Mode...
Source
#1Franzis Preckel (University of Trier)H-Index: 22
#2Jessika Golle (University of Tübingen)H-Index: 5
Last. Miriam Vock (University of Potsdam)H-Index: 7
view all 11 authors...
Achievement in different domains, such as academics, music, or visual arts, plays a central role in all modern societies. Different psychological models aim to describe and explain achievement and its development in different domains. However, there remains a need for a framework that guides empirical research within and across different domains. With the talent-development-in-achievement-domains (TAD) framework, we provide a general talent-development framework applicable to a wide range of ach...
Source
#1Francesco Raggiotto (University of Udine)H-Index: 1
Millions of people enjoy extreme sports, and many brands use them as contexts for advertising. This chapter considers extreme sports through the lenses of edgework theory and cognitive adaptation theory, and develops two experiments that compare the challenge of leveraging advertising effectively and the degrees of difficulty in extreme and traditional sports settings with regard to high- and low-involvement products. Results suggest that challenge-based and difficulty-based advertisements posit...
Source