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The Influence of Experience and Deliberate Practice on the Development of Superior Expert Performance

Published on Jan 1, 2006
· DOI :10.1017/CBO9780511816796.038
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University)
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Abstract
There are several factors that influence the level of professional achievement. First and foremost, extensive experience of activities in a domain is necessary to reach very high levels of performance. Extensive experience in a domain does not, however, invariably lead to expert levels of achievement. When individuals are first introduced to a professional domain after completing their basic training and formal education, they often work as apprentices and are supervised by more-experienced professionals as they accomplish their work-related responsibilities. After months of experience, they typically attain an acceptable level of proficiency, and with longer experience, often years, they are able to work as independent professionals. At that time most professionals reach a stable, average level of performance, and then they maintain this pedestrian level for the rest of their careers. In contrast, some continue to improve and eventually reach the highest levels of professional mastery. Traditionally, individual differences in the performance of professionals have been explained by an account given by Galton (1869/1979, see Ericsson, 2003a, for a description). According to this view, every healthy person will improve initially through experience, but these improvements are eventually limited by innate factors that cannot be changed through training; hence attainable performance is constrained by one's basic endowments, such as abilities, mental capacities, and innate talents. This general view also explains age-related declines in professional achievement, owing to the inevitable degradation of general capacities and processes with age (see also Krampe & Charness, Chapter 40).
  • References (74)
  • Citations (840)
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References74
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2012
Nicola J. Hodges33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
A.M. Williams14
Estimated H-index: 14
Preface - NICOLA HODGES and MARK WILLIAMS I. PRESENTING INFORMATION 1. The roles and uses of augmented feedback in motor skill acquisition - RICHARD MAGILL and DAVID ANDERSON 2. Mixing it up a little: How to schedule observational practice - NICOLE ONG and NICOLA HODGES 3. Attentional focus affects movement efficiency - KEITH LOHSE, GABRIELE WULF and REBECCA LEWTHWAITE 4. Advances in implicit motor learning - RICHARD S. W. MASTERS and JAMIE POOLTON II: OPTIMIZING PRACTICE CONDITIONS 5. Schedulin...
Published on Jan 2, 1992
Robert R. Hoffman9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Adelphi University)
Experts, who were the sole active dispensers of certain kinds of knowledge in the days before A1, have now often assumed a rather passive role. They relay their knowledge to various novices, knowledge engineers, experimental psychologists or cognitivists - or other experts - involved in the development and understanding of expert systems. This book aims to achieve a balance between experimentalists and theoreticians who deal with expertise. It tries to establish the benefits to society of an adv...
Published on Mar 17, 2008
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University)
Published on Sep 1, 2005in Nature Neuroscience21.13
Sara L. Bengtsson12
Estimated H-index: 12
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Zoltan Nagy23
Estimated H-index: 23
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
+ 3 AuthorsFredrik Ullén33
Estimated H-index: 33
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated effects of piano practicing in childhood, adolescence and adulthood on white matter, and found positive correlations between practicing and fiber tract organization in different regions for each age period. For childhood, practicing correlations were extensive and included the pyramidal tract, which was more structured in pianists than in non-musicians. Long-term training within critical developmental periods may thus induce regionally specific pla...
Published on Mar 1, 2005in Applied Cognitive Psychology1.55
Neil Charness40
Estimated H-index: 40
(FSU: Florida State University),
Michael Tuffiash5
Estimated H-index: 5
(FSU: Florida State University)
+ 2 AuthorsEkaterina Vasyukova1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Moscow State University)
SUMMARY Two large, diverse samples of tournament-rated chess players were asked to estimate the frequency and duration of their engagement in a variety of chess-related activities. Variables representing accumulated time spent on serious study alone, tournament play, and formal instruction were all significant bivariate correlates of chess skill as measured by tournament performance ratings. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that among the activities measured, serious study alone was the...
Published on Mar 1, 2005in Journal of Applied Sport Psychology2.20
Jean Côté50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University),
K. Anders Ericsson1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Queen's University),
Madelyn P. Law1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Queen's University)
A new interview procedure is proposed for collecting valid information on the acquisition of high-level performance in sport. The procedure elicits verifiable information on the development of athletes' achievements in their primary sport, as well as factors that might influence performance, including involvement in other sporting activities, injuries, physical growth and quality of training resources. Interviewed athletes also describe their engagement in specific training and other relevant ac...
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Contemporary Educational Psychology2.48
E. Ashby Plant35
Estimated H-index: 35
(FSU: Florida State University),
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University)
+ 1 AuthorsKia Asberg10
Estimated H-index: 10
(FSU: Florida State University)
The current work draws upon the theoretical framework of deliberate practice in order to clarify why the amount of study by college students is a poor predictor of academic performance. A model was proposed where performance in college, both cumulatively and for a current semester, was jointly determined by previous knowledge and skills as well as factors indicating quality (e.g., study environment) and quantity of study. The findings support the proposed model and indicate that the amount of st...
Published on Nov 1, 2004in Cognitive Psychology3.75
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University),
Peter F. Delaney17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UF: University of Florida)
+ 1 AuthorsRajan Mahadevan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UT: University of Tennessee)
After extensive laboratory testing of the famous memorist Rajan, Thompson, Cowan, and Frieman (1993) proposed that he was innately endowed with a superior memory capacity for digits and letters and thus violated the hypothesis that exceptional memory fully reflects acquired ?skilled memory.? We successfully replicated the empirical phenomena that led them to their conclusions. From additional analyses and new experiments, we found support for an alternative hypothesis, namely that Rajan’s superi...
Published on Oct 1, 2004in Medical Education4.62
Véronique Moulaert13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UM: Maastricht University),
Maarten G. M. Verwijnen3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UM: Maastricht University)
+ 1 AuthorsAlbert Scherpbier53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UM: Maastricht University)
INTRODUCTION: Ericsson and colleagues introduced the term 'deliberate practice' to describe training activities that are especially designed to maximise improvement. They stressed that how much one practises is as important as how one practises. Essential aspects of deliberate practice are the presence of well defined tasks, informative feedback, repetition, self-reflection, motivation and endurance. Deliberate practice is often difficult, laborious, and even unpleasant. Previous studies in the ...
Published on Oct 1, 2004in Academic Medicine5.08
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
The factors that cause large individual differences in professional achievement are only partially understood. Nobody becomes an outstanding professional without experience, but extensive experience does not invariably lead people to become experts. When individuals are first introduced to a professional domain after completing their education, they are often overwhelmed and rely on help from others to accomplish their responsibilities. After months or years of experience, they attain an accepta...
Cited By840
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2020
David C. Aron39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Case Western Reserve University)
Clinical reasoning is an essential part of medical practice often typified by the astute diagnostician, the medical detective, the Sherlock Holmes of the wards, coming to the single diagnosis that best explained the case. This was best illustrated in the weekly Clinical Pathologic Conference in which a case is presented up to some key decision point (often a procedure) and a discussant thinks aloud, demonstrating his/her reasoning and committing to the specific decision and what will be found, i...
Published on Feb 6, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Christophe Boesch79
Estimated H-index: 79
(MPG: Max Planck Society),
Daša Bombjaková2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsRoger Mundry33
Estimated H-index: 33
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
Humans are considered superior to other species in their tool using skills. However, most of our knowledge about animals comes from observations in artificial conditions with individuals removed from their natural environment. We present a first comparison of humans and chimpanzees spontaneously acquiring the same technique as they forage in their natural environment. We compared the acquisition of the Panda nut-cracking technique between Mbendjele foragers from the Republic of Congo and the Tai...
Published on Jul 26, 2018in Journal of Further and Higher Education
Pirkko Siklander2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Oulu),
Niina Impiö (University of Oulu)
ABSTRACTWe need to know what it means to be an expert in working life today. Universities are often accused of neglecting the basic idea that higher education should be relevant to working life, and research on the subject of expertise in today’s workplace is lacking. Thirteen experts from different fields were interviewed and the obtained data were analysed using grounded theory as an analytical approach. The research questions were: (1) How do experts define expertise? (2) What kind of problem...
Published on Jun 23, 2019in Journal of Sports Sciences2.81
Moslem Bahmani1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Kharazmi University),
Abbas Bahram3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Kharazmi University)
+ 1 AuthorsSaeed Arsham (Kharazmi University)
ABSTRACTThe aims of this study were to (1) to explore attentional strategies in expert judo players and (2) investigate how attentional focus affects performance effectiveness and perceptions of workload in expert judo players during real competitions. Fourteen expert male judo players participated in the study. A simulated recall method was used following participants’ competition to explore contents of attention qualitatively. The data analysis process for the qualitative portion of the study ...
Published on Apr 10, 2018in Psychology of Music1.38
Maria Sandgren2
Estimated H-index: 2
(SH: Södertörn University)
How modes of instrumental practice are distributed in three musical genres and among vocalists and instrumentalists at music colleges
Published on Sep 1, 2019
Laura G. Militello12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Christen E. Sushereba2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsEmily S. Patterson29
Estimated H-index: 29
(OSU: Ohio State University)
Published on Apr 15, 2019in Journal of International Marketing3.38
Shahin Assadinia1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Nathaniel Boso9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 1 AuthorsMatthew J. Robson16
Estimated H-index: 16
Our understanding of experiential learning via export learning process, and its outcomes, is limited in the international marketing literature. Using multi-source, time-lagged data of exporting firms in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and China, this study finds that export learning process is positively associated with marketing strategy adaptation for both U.K. and Chinese exporters. Results suggest contrasting moderating effects of experiential knowledge resources (i.e., psychic dispersion, multina...
Published on Aug 31, 2017in Psychological Research-psychologische Forschung2.85
Jerad H. Moxley7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UM: University of Miami),
K. Anders Ericsson50
Estimated H-index: 50
(FSU: Florida State University),
Michael Tuffiash5
Estimated H-index: 5
(FSU: Florida State University)
In two studies, the SCRABBLE skill of male and female participants at the National SCRABBLE Championship was analyzed and revealed superior performance for males. By collecting increasingly detailed information about the participants’ engagement in practice-related activities, we found that over half of the variance in SCRABBLE performance was accounted for by measures of starting ages and the amount of different types of practice activities. Males and females did not differ significantly in the...
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Psychology of Sport and Exercise2.71
Gabriele Russo1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Giovanni Ottoboni9
Estimated H-index: 9
Abstract The aim of this review is to provide evidence of how practicing combat sports can shape the perceptual – cognitive skills of athletes. This is because they must be adept at selecting the relevant stimuli in order to anticipate the attack and decide how counterattack their opponent in order to achieve victory. A systematic search was conducted on PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science via the combination of specific keywords. 31 research articles were included. Different aspects of perceptu...
Published on 2019in The Modern Language Journal3.76
Yuichi Suzuki6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Kanagawa University),
Tatsuya Nakata1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Hosei University),
Robert DeKeyser22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
View next paperAcquisition of cognitive skill.