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Systematic inequality and hierarchy in faculty hiring networks

Published on Feb 1, 2015in Science Advances
· DOI :10.1126/sciadv.1400005
Aaron Clauset30
Estimated H-index: 30
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder),
Samuel Arbesman9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation),
Daniel B. Larremore14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Harvard University)
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Abstract
The faculty job market plays a fundamental role in shaping research priorities, educational outcomes, and career trajectories among scientists and institutions. However, a quantitative understanding of faculty hiring as a system is lacking. Using a simple technique to extract the institutional prestige ranking that best explains an observed faculty hiring network—who hires whose graduates as faculty—we present and analyze comprehensive placement data on nearly 19,000 regular faculty in three disparate disciplines. Across disciplines, we find that faculty hiring follows a common and steeply hierarchical structure that reflects profound social inequality. Furthermore, doctoral prestige alone better predicts ultimate placement than a U.S. News & World Report rank, women generally place worse than men, and increased institutional prestige leads to increased faculty production, better faculty placement, and a more influential position within the discipline. These results advance our ability to quantify the influence of prestige in academia and shed new light on the academic system.
  • References (43)
  • Citations (110)
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References43
Newest
Published on May 1, 2015in Scientific Reports4.01
Liangjun Qiao3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Hongwei Gao1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 8 AuthorsHong Xu8
Estimated H-index: 8
The Snail family member snail encodes a zinc finger-containing transcriptional factor that is involved in heart formation. Yet, little is known about how Snail regulates heart development. Here, we identified that one of the duplicated snail genes, snai1b, was expressed in the heart region of zebrafish embryos. Depletion of Snai1b function dramatically reduced expression of α5 integrin, disrupted Fibronectin layer in the heart region, especially at the midline, and prevented migration of cardiac...
Published on May 1, 2015in Scientific Reports4.01
Pierre Deville6
Estimated H-index: 6
(NU: Northeastern University),
Dashun Wang14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NU: Northeastern University)
+ 3 AuthorsAlbert-La szlo Baraba si115
Estimated H-index: 115
(NU: Northeastern University)
Changing institutions is an integral part of an academic life. Yet little is known about the mobility patterns of scientists at an institutional level and how these career choices affect scientific outcomes. Here, we examine over 420,000 papers, to track the affiliation information of individual scientists, allowing us to reconstruct their career trajectories over decades. We find that career movements are not only temporally and spatially localized, but also characterized by a high degree of st...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Journal of Complex Networks
Péter Csermely55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Semmelweis University),
András London3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Szeged)
+ 1 AuthorsBrian Uzzi34
Estimated H-index: 34
(NU: Northwestern University)
Recent studies uncovered important core/periphery network structures characterizing complex sets of cooperative and competitive interactions between network nodes, be they proteins, cells, species or humans. Better characterization of the structure, dynamics and function of core/periphery networks is a key step of our understanding cellular functions, species adaptation, social and market changes. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and dynamics of "traditional" core/periphe...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Science Communication2.30
Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick26
Estimated H-index: 26
(OSU: Ohio State University),
Carroll J. Glynn19
Estimated H-index: 19
(OSU: Ohio State University),
Michael E. Huge10
Estimated H-index: 10
(OSU: Ohio State University)
An experiment with 243 young communication scholars tested hypotheses derived from role congruity theory regarding impacts of author gender and gender typing of research topics on perceived quality of scientific publications and collaboration interest. Participants rated conference abstracts ostensibly authored by females or males, with author associations rotated. The abstracts fell into research areas perceived as gender-typed or gender-neutral to ascertain impacts from gender typing of topics...
Corinne A. Moss-Racusin18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
John F. Dovidio89
Estimated H-index: 89
+ 2 AuthorsJo Handelsman68
Estimated H-index: 68
Despite efforts to recruit and retain more women, a stark gender disparity persists within academic science. Abundant research has demonstrated gender bias in many demographic groups, but has yet to experimentally investigate whether science faculty exhibit a bias against female students that could contribute to the gender disparity in academic science. In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student—...
Published on Dec 1, 2011in Chaos2.64
Sean A. Myers2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill),
Peter J. Mucha38
Estimated H-index: 38
,
Mason A. Porter45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Oxford)
The Mathematics Genealogy Project (http://www. genealogy.ams.org/) is a database of over 150 000 scholars with advanced degrees in mathematics and related fields. Entries include dissertation titles, adviser(s), graduation years, degree-granting institutions, and advisees. The MGP is popular among mathematicians, and it can be used to trace academic lineages through luminaries like Courant, Hilbert, and Wiener to historical predecessors such as Gauss, Euler, and even Kant. For example, MGP data ...
Published on Apr 21, 2011in Nature43.07
David Cyranoski31
Estimated H-index: 31
,
Natasha Gilbert Ng16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 2 AuthorsMohammed Yahia My4
Estimated H-index: 4
Stephen J. Ceci56
Estimated H-index: 56
,
Wendy M. Williams25
Estimated H-index: 25
Explanations for women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields of science often focus on sex discrimination in grant and manuscript reviewing, interviewing, and hiring. Claims that women scientists suffer discrimination in these arenas rest on a set of studies undergirding policies and programs aimed at remediation. More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains. To better understand women's underrepresentation in math-intensive ...
Published on May 20, 2010
M. E. J. Newman82
Estimated H-index: 82
The scientific study of networks, including computer networks, social networks, and biological networks, has received an enormous amount of interest in the last few years. The rise of the Internet and the wide availability of inexpensive computers have made it possible to gather and analyze network data on a large scale, and the development of a variety of new theoretical tools has allowed us to extract new knowledge from many different kinds of networks.The study of networks is broadly interdis...
Cited By110
Newest
Published on Apr 18, 2019in Scientific Data
Jichao Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University),
Yian Yin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
+ 1 AuthorsDashun Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NU: Northwestern University)
A central question in the science of science concerns how to develop a quantitative understanding of the evolution and impact of individual careers. Over the course of history, a relatively small fraction of individuals have made disproportionate, profound, and lasting impacts on science and society. Despite a long-standing interest in the careers of scientific elites across diverse disciplines, it remains difficult to collect large-scale career histories that could serve as training sets for sy...
Published on Sep 18, 2019in Sociological Perspectives0.83
Esther I. Wilder9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CUNY: City University of New York),
William H. Walters11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Manhattan College)
This study examines the 2013–2017 publishing productivity of sociology faculty at six types of colleges and universities (e.g., research universities, master’s institutions, and top liberal arts co...
Published on Sep 7, 2019in bioRxiv
Jeremy W. Fox23
Estimated H-index: 23
(U of C: University of Calgary)
Every year for three years (2016 to 2018), I tried to identify every single person hired as a tenure track prof in ecology or an allied field (e.g., fish & wildlife) in N. America. I identified a total of 566 hires. I used public sources to compile various data on the new hires and the institutions that hired them (e.g., number of publications, teaching experience, hiring institution Carnegie class). I also compiled data provided by anonymous ecology faculty job seekers on ecoevojobs.net (e.g., ...
Published on Sep 5, 2019in arXiv: Digital Libraries
Stephen M. Blackburn24
Estimated H-index: 24
(ANU: Australian National University),
Kathryn S. McKinley50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Google),
Lexing Xie (ANU: Australian National University)
Although the computer science community successfully harnessed exponential increases in computer performance to drive societal and economic change, the exponential growth in publications is proving harder to accommodate. To gain a deeper understanding of publication growth and inform how the computer science community should handle this growth, we analyzed publication practices from several perspectives: ACM sponsored publications in the ACM Digital Library as a whole: subdisciplines captured by...
Published on Sep 14, 2018in Journal of European Public Policy3.46
Michael Flickenschild (Ecorys), Alexandre Afonso9
Estimated H-index: 9
(LEI: Leiden University)
ABSTRACTThis article shows how the network structure of economic expertise can influence the diffusion of ideas in economic policymaking. Applying social network analysis, we analyse the networks of economic policy advice in the United States and Germany around the Council of Economic Advisors and the Sachverstandigenrat. With the help of co-publication and institutional affiliation data, we argue that the more fragmented structure of academic expertise in Germany hindered the diffusion of new i...
Published on Apr 11, 2014in Perspectives on Psychological Science8.19
Eric Luis Uhlmann24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Christopher R. Chartier7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 7 AuthorsAmy Riegelman1
Estimated H-index: 1
Most scientific research is conducted by small teams of investigators who together formulate hypotheses, collect data, conduct analyses, and report novel findings. These teams operate independently...
Published on Jan 18, 2019in Higher Education3.00
Roxana Chiappa1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UW: University of Washington),
Paulina Perez Mejias1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Chile)
Studies on faculty income have typically focused on disparities associated with gender and race. Surprisingly, much less attention has been paid to the social class background of university faculty and how it might affect their pathways to the professoriate and their opportunities to access high-paying positions. We attempted to address this gap in the literature by looking at a sample of faculty working at Chilean universities. We used a path analysis approach to estimate not only the direct ef...
Published on Aug 29, 2019in World Futures
Fernando Roxas3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Asian Institute of Management),
John Paolo R. Rivera (Asian Institute of Management), Eylla Laire M. Gutierrez (Asian Institute of Management)
Outcomes depending on various interacting and adaptive parts and actors in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) world are challenging to analyze using traditional thinking. Hence, S...
ABSTRACTThis study has bifold aims: first it tries to place cultural discourse studies (CDS) in the context of de-Westernization approaches in the field of international science in general, and in ...
E.O.L. Lantsoght10
Estimated H-index: 10
,
Miguel Abambres + 1 AuthorsAna Catarina Sousa4
Estimated H-index: 4
Though Brazilian academia claims equality, the sector has largely been referred to as non-meritocratic, and academic hiring is still inward-oriented. The Lattes platform, a public curricular information system, reflects elements of this protectionism. This article assesses two ‘obsessions’ in Brazilian academia: the ‘mandatory’ Lattes CV, and the assessment criteria and procedures in public tenders for faculty positions. The current situation is introduced to the reader, and the shortcomings of ...
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