A guide to the crystallographic analysis of icosahedral viruses
Determining the structure of an icosahedral virus crystal by X-ray diffraction follows very much the same course as conventional protein crystallography. The major differences arise from the relatively large sizes of the particles, which significantly affect the data collection process, data processing and management, and later, the refinement of a model. Most of the other differences are due to the high 5 3 2 point group symmetry of icosahedral viruses. This alters dramatically the means by which initial phases are obtained by molecular substitution, extended to higher resolution by electron density averaging and density modification, and the refinement of the structure in the light of high non-crystallographic symmetry. In this review, we attempt to lead the investigator through the various steps involved in solving the structure of a virus crystal. These steps include the purification of viruses, their crystallization, the recording of X-ray diffraction data, and its reduction to structure amplitudes. ...