Dedicating Management to Cultural Processes: Toward a Human Risk Management System
Culture is a fuzzy concept embracing overflowing definitions. Nevertheless, our research led us to use this terminology to refer to the set of shared representations used by a group to think and act. This restrictive sense of culture is based on a psychological perspective which has for a long time demonstrated the major role of social representations in human behaviours. Our research domain concerns workers' risk mastering activities implied by both daily behaviours and crises behaviours. Within this framework, the purpose of our studies is to highlight the mechanisms of risk representations in relation to workers' risk mastering activities. Workers, confronted with risks, refer to their risk representations to lead their behaviours. Each person has his or her own representations of risk. But, working together, a group of persons develops shared risk representations. Our present research question is: How are these shared risk representations are developed and activated in the working context? We refer to these two mechanisms (representations development and activation) as cultural processes. Supported by a large literature review, we propose in this article a classification of cultural processes: social representations, groups interactions, organisational learning and team working. This classification has two ends. First, it is dedicated to the modelling of cultural processes. So, as a first test, we present four previous research programmes re-interpreting their results based on our classification. Second, it represents a reference to build a risk management system addressing cultural processes in order to limit risky behaviours and to enhance safety behaviours. We present hereafter, our model of a risk management system. As a specific model dedicated to cultural processes, we named it a Human Risk Management System (HRMS).