Control of citrus postharvest penicillium molds with sodium ethylparaben

Published on Apr 1, 2013in Crop Protection2.172
· DOI :10.1016/j.cropro.2012.12.007
Pedro A. Moscoso-Ramírez6
Estimated H-index: 6
Clara Montesinos-Herrero8
Estimated H-index: 8
Lluís Palou27
Estimated H-index: 27
Abstract The curative antifungal activity of postharvest sodium ethylparaben (SEP) treatments against citrus green mold (GM) and blue mold (BM) was determined on different citrus species and cultivars artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH for 7 d or stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for 8 weeks plus 7 d of shelf-life at 20 °C. The best concentration was selected in in vivo primary screenings with ‘Valencia’ oranges. SEP at 80 mM was tested at 20, 50 or 62 °C for 30, 60 or 150 s in small-scale trials to determine the best dip treatment conditions. Dips of 80 mM SEP at 20 °C for 60 s were selected and applied alone or in combination with 25 μL L −1 of the conventional fungicide imazalil (SEP + IMZ 25). Imazalil at the very low concentrations of 25 (IMZ 25) or 50 μL L −1 (IMZ 50) was also tested. Effectiveness of SEP alone at 20 °C for 60 s was significantly higher on oranges (cvs. ‘Valencia’ and ‘Lanelate’) than on mandarins (cvs. ‘Clemenules’, ‘Nadorcott’ and ‘Ortanique’), with GM and BM incidence reductions of up to 57–73% after 7 d at 20 °C. SEP was compatible with IMZ 25 and consistently improved its performance, irrespective of citrus cultivars and storage conditions. All treatments were less effective on ‘Clemenules’ mandarins. On ‘Valencia’ oranges stored for 8 weeks at 5 °C and 7 d at 20 °C, the combined treatment was significantly more effective than the single treatments (reductions of GM and BM incidence of about 96–93% and 55–39%, respectively). In additional tests, SEP, IMZ 25 and the combination applied at 20 °C for 60 s prevented GM on ‘Valencia’ oranges treated, inoculated with P. digitatum 24 h later and incubated at 20 °C for 7 d. It can be concluded from these results that SEP might be an integrating nonpollutant control alternative to be included in citrus postharvest disease control programs in the future.
  • References (24)
  • Citations (18)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
15 Citations
97 Citations
50 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Zafar Iqbal (Curtin University)H-Index: 1
#2Zora Singh (Curtin University)H-Index: 28
Last. Saeed Ahmad (Curtin University)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
The present studies aimed to develop control of citrus green and blue moulds caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, respectively, using elicitors as an alternate to synthetic chemicals. The dose-responsive toxicity of two organic elicitors was evaluated through a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments including pre- and postharvest application of different concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJ) to ‘Lane Late’ sweet orange fruit for resistance induction. In ...
14 CitationsSource
Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), lipid components (beeswax and shellac), and food preservatives with antifungal properties were evaluated in vivo on clementine mandarins cv. Clemenules, hybrid mandarins cv. Ortanique, and oranges cv. Valencia. Their curative and preventive activity against citrus postharvest green (GM) and blue molds (BM), caused by Penicillium digitatum (PD) or Penicillium italicum (PI), respectively, were determined. Fruits were artifici...
39 CitationsSource
Abstract Several commercially important citrus species and cultivars were artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum , immersed 24 h later for 5, 15, 30, or 60 s in water (control) or aqueous solutions of 3% (w/v) potassium sorbate (PS) at 20, 53, 58, 62, 65, or 68 °C, rinsed with tap water, and incubated at 20 °C for 7 d. The most effective treatments were PS applications at 62 °C for 30 or 60 s, which reduced both penicillium molds by up to 20, 25, 50, 80, or 95...
45 CitationsSource
New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)−lipid edible composite films containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and mineral salts, classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Selected films containing food preservatives were used for in vitro evaluation (disk diameter test) of their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Penicillium ita...
53 CitationsSource
#1Josep UsallH-Index: 44
#2Joseph L. Smilanick (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 41
Last. Immaculada ViñasH-Index: 36
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40 °C, alone or followed by the application of 2 × 10 8 CFU/mL of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), were simultaneously evaluated for the control of postharvest green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum , in artificially inoculated Lanelate and Valencia oranges. Fresh cells of BA proliferated inside rind wounds and their survival was not...
63 CitationsSource
#1Joseph L. Smilanick (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 41
#2Monir Mansour (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 15
Last. David SorensonH-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Potassium sorbate (KS), a common food preservative, was evaluated to control postharvest decay of citrus fruit. Significant advantages of KS over the commonly used sodium bicarbonate, which similarly improved fungicide performance, are the relatively low salt concentration of KS, the absence of sodium, and its lower pH, so disposal of used KS solutions would raise fewer regulatory issues. The influence of KS concentration and pH (pH 4–9) on the germination of spores of Penicillium digit...
110 CitationsSource
#1Lluís PalouH-Index: 27
#2Joseph L. SmilanickH-Index: 41
Last. Samir DrobyH-Index: 49
view all 3 authors...
97 Citations
Abstract The integration of sodium carbonate (SC; dips at 20 °C for 150 s in aqueous 3% SC solutions) treatments and X-ray irradiation (at doses of 510 and 875 Gy) was evaluated on artificially inoculated ‘Clemenules’ clementine mandarins for the control of postharvest green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum , respectively. Although significant, the reduction of both disease incidence (number of infected fruit) and severity (lesion diameter) on fruit either...
32 CitationsSource
Parabens are widely used as preservatives in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Acute, subchronic, and chronic studies in rodents indicate that parabens are practically non-toxic. Parabens are rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. In individuals with normal skin, parabens are, for the most part, non-irritating and non-sensitizing. However, application of compounds containing parabens to damaged or broken skin has resulted in sensitization. Genotoxicity testing of parabens in a va...
518 CitationsSource
#1Joseph L. Smilanick (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 41
#2M. F. Mansour (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 1
Last. W. R. Goodwine (Janssen Pharmaceutica)H-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACT In vitro, spores of Penicillium digitatum germinated without inhibition between pH 4 and 7, but were inhibited at higher pH. Estimated concentrations of imazalil (IMZ) in potato-dextrose broth-Tris that caused 50% reduction in the germination of spores (ED50) of an IMZ-sensitive isolate M6R at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 0.16, 0.11, 0.015, and 0.006 μg/ml, respectively. ED50 IMZ concentrations of an IMZ-resistant isolate D201 at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 5.9, 1.4, 0.26, and 0.07 μg/ml, respecti...
98 CitationsSource
Cited By18
#1Ajinath Dukare (ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)H-Index: 2
#2Rajesh K. Singh (ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)H-Index: 18
Last. Bharat Bhushan (ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)H-Index: 100
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACTPost-harvest commodities wastage due to decay caused by the pathogenic fungi generates a huge amount of economic losses worldwide. Different species of Penicillium spoil various foodstuffs ...
#1Konstantinos Papoutsis (University of Newcastle)H-Index: 1
Last. Vasileios ZiogasH-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Background Citrus is one of the most economically important horticultural crops in the world. Citrus are vulnerable to the postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum, which are both wound pathogens. To date, several non-chemical postharvest treatments have been investigated for the control of both pathogens, trying to provide an alternative solution to the synthetic fungicides (imazalil, thiabendazole, pyrimethanil, and fludioxonil), which are mainly employed and ...
4 CitationsSource
#1Chuying ChenH-Index: 7
#2Nan CaiH-Index: 1
Last. Chunpeng WanH-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
A novel coating based on 1.5% chitosan (CH), enriched with or without hairy fig (Ficus hirta Vahl.) fruit extract (HFE), was applied to “Newhall” navel orange for improving the preservation effect. Changes in physicochemical indexes were analyzed over 120 days of cold storage. Uncoated fruit were used as the control. The CH-HFE coating, based on 1.5% CH enriched with HFE, exhibited the best preservation effect and showed the lowest decay rate (5.2%) and weight loss (5.16%). The CH-HFE coating co...
4 CitationsSource
#1Jianmei CheH-Index: 2
#2Bo LiuH-Index: 8
Last. Dandan HuangH-Index: 2
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Ethylparaben is the main antimicrobial substance in the culture supernatant of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX. The present study aimed to obtain and partially characterize mutant strains with higher ethylparaben production through mutagenesis of B. brevis FJAT-0809-GLX by UV irradiation and LiCl treatment. The results showed that the positive mutant rates of the UV irradiation, LiCl treatment and combination of UV irradiation and LiCl treatment were 7.8%, 0% and 12%, respectively. T...
2 CitationsSource
#1Chenjun Zhuang (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)H-Index: 3
#2Yongli Jiang (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University)H-Index: 2
Last. Honglei MuH-Index: 5
view all 11 authors...
Abstract Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CHI) are all biodegradable materials with excellent film-forming properties. This study prepared bilayer films with PVA-CHI film as the outer layer and SA film as the inner layer. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was used to study the effects of the SA film formula where nano-cellulose, surfactant, calcium chloride and anti-bacterial agents were added. The performance of the bilayer films was evaluated considering water solubilit...
12 CitationsSource
#2Pascale Chalier (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 22
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Preventive antifungal activity of postharvest treatments with SPI (soy protein isolate) −coatings forming solutions against blue mould decay were evaluated on Persian lime ( Citrus latifolia Tanaka) artificially inoculated in rind wounds with Penicillium italicum . Stimulatory effects were observed with the use of citral, however with the use of limonene an inhibitory effect was obtained. After 13 d of storage, significant preventive activity against blue mould was observed with a 20% o...
10 CitationsSource
#1Michael Wisniewski (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 52
#2Samir DrobyH-Index: 49
Last. Leonardo SchenaH-Index: 29
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Finding safe and effective alternatives to synthetic fungicides for reducing postharvest losses of harvested commodities has been a focus of much research over the past three decades. Identifying alternatives that are widely accepted and commercially viable has, however, been a challenge. The search to identify alternative approaches to postharvest disease management must be viewed in relation to a complex regulatory environment, the need to address disease problems in a wide array of c...
52 CitationsSource
#1Ali Osman (Zagazig University)H-Index: 9
#2Entsar Abbas (Zagazig University)H-Index: 1
Last. Mahmoud Sitohy (Zagazig University)H-Index: 20
view all 4 authors...
The potential antifungal activities of a soy protein fraction containing mainly β-conglycinin and glycinin against the pathogenic fungus Penicillium digitatum, either in vitro or in situ (postharvest orange fruit), were evaluated and compared with the fungicide rhizolax. Traditional microbiological plating was used to evaluate the potential in vitro antifungal activities of the fraction containing β-conglycinin or glycinin. The probable changes in the morphology and cellular compositions of fung...
7 CitationsSource
#1Feng Zhu (HAU: Huazhong Agricultural University)H-Index: 5
#2Jiajing Chen (HAU: Huazhong Agricultural University)H-Index: 4
Last. Xiuxin Deng (HAU: Huazhong Agricultural University)H-Index: 36
view all 9 authors...
Abstract To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu ), fruits were treated with 2 mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50 d and 120 d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality...
10 CitationsSource
Abstract The curative activity of the food additives dehydroacetic acid, dimethyl dicarbonate, ethylene diamine tetracetic acid, sodium acetate, and sodium benzoate (SB) was tested in in vivo preliminary screenings against green and blue molds on citrus fruit artificially inoculated 24 h before with Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum , respectively. SB was the most effective compound and it was further tested in trials simulating postharvest industrial applications. Dip treatments fo...
9 CitationsSource