Reinduction of T-Type Calcium Channels by Endothelin-1 in Failing Hearts In Vivo and in Adult Rat Ventricular Myocytes In Vitro
Background— In ventricular myocardium, the T-type Ca2+ current (ICa,T), which is temporarily observed during fetal and neonatal periods, has been shown to reappear in failing/remodeling hearts. However, its pathophysiological regulation has not been elucidated. Methods and Results— We utilized Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats with hypertension at the stage of concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (11 weeks old, LVH) and at the heart failure stage (16 to 18 weeks old, CHF). Some were treated with bosentan (100 mg/kg per day) during the period from LVH to CHF. In LVH, neither the presence of ICa,T (measured in the freshly isolated LV myocytes) nor an increase in α-1G mRNA expression were detected. This condition was associated with increases in tissue angiotensin II (AII) but not with endothelin (ET)-1 peptides. In contrast, in CHF, when the tissue AII remained elevated and ET-1 de novo increased, ICa,T was recorded in most of the cells (−0.87±0.18 pA/pF at −30 mV, P<0.01 versus LVH). This was associate...