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Altering the trajectory of anxiety in at-risk young children.

Published on Dec 1, 2010in American Journal of Psychiatry13.655
· DOI :10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09111619
Ronald M. Rapee83
Estimated H-index: 83
,
Susan J. Kennedy7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 2 AuthorsL Sweeney3
Estimated H-index: 3
Sources
Abstract
Objective:Increasing evidence for the importance of several risk factors for anxiety disorders is beginning to point to the possibility of prevention. Early interventions targeting known risk for anxiety have rarely been evaluated. The authors evaluated the medium-term (3-year) effects of a parent-focused intervention for anxiety in inhibited preschool-age children. Method:The study was a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention program provided to parents compared with a monitoring-only condition. Participants were 146 inhibited preschool-age children and their parents; data from two or more assessment points were available at 3 years for 121 children. Study inclusion was based on parent-reported screening plus laboratory-observed inhibition. The six-session group-based intervention included parenting skills, cognitive restructuring, and in vivo exposure. The main outcome measures were number and severity of anxiety disorders, anxiety symptoms, and extent of inhibition. Results:Children whose ...
  • References (11)
  • Citations (128)
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References11
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486 CitationsSource
#1Alice M. Gregory (Lond: University of London)H-Index: 40
#2Thalia C. Eley ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 58
Anxiety is a common problem, typically beginning early in life. This article explores reasons for individual differences in levels of anxiety among children, by reviewing the genetic literature. The plethora of research to date has demonstrated clearly that both genes and environmental influences play important roles in explaining differences in levels of anxiety of various types among children. This has encouraged researchers to search for specific genes and environmental influences upon anxiet...
128 CitationsSource
Objective: The goal of this study was to predict the onset of mood and anxiety disorders from parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems in childhood across a 14-year period from childhood into young adulthood. Method: In 1983, parent reports of behavioral and emotional problems were obtained with the Child Behavior Checklist for children and adolescents 4–16 years of age from the Dutch general population. At follow-up 14 years later, lifetime mood and anxiety diagnoses were obtained by a...
343 CitationsSource
#1E. Jane Costello (Duke University)H-Index: 80
#2Sarah A. Mustillo (Duke University)H-Index: 22
Last. Adrian Angold (Duke University)H-Index: 90
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Results: Although 3-month prevalence of any disorder averaged 13.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7%15.0%), during the study period 36.7% of participants (31% of girls and 42% of boys) had at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Some disorders (social anxiety, panic, depression, and substance abuse) increased in prevalence, whereas others, including separation anxiety disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), decreased. Lagged analyses showed that children with a history of psyc...
2,655 CitationsSource
#1Nathan A. Fox (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 97
#2Heather A. Henderson (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 35
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Four-month-old infants were screened (N = 433) for temperamental patterns thought to predict behavioral inhibition, including motor reactivity and the expression of negative affect. Those selected (N = 153) were assessed at multiple age points across the first 4 years of life for behavioral signs of inhibition as well as psychophysiological markers of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry. Four-month temperament was modestly predictive of behavioral inhibition over the first 2 years of li...
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#1Margot Prior (Royal Children's Hospital)H-Index: 64
#2Diana Smart (Royal Children's Hospital)H-Index: 32
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ABSTRACT Objective To assess the relationships between shy-inhibited temperament in childhood and anxiety problems in early adolescence using a prospective, longitudinal data set from a large community sample. Method Relationships between shyness ratings on age-appropriate temperament scales and anxiety problems were analyzed, looking both forward and backward in time from infancy to adolescence. Results Forty-two percent of children rated as shy on 6 or more occasions over 8 surveys in childhoo...
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#1Jean-Jacques Breton (UdeM: Université de Montréal)H-Index: 16
#2Lise Bergeron (UdeM: Université de Montréal)H-Index: 14
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The Quebec Child Mental Health Survey (QCMHS) was conducted in 1992 on a representative sample of 2400 children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years from throughout Quebec. Prevalences of nine Axis-I DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) mental health disorders were calculated based on each informant (for 6–11-year-olds: child, parent, and teacher; for 12–14-year-olds: child and parent). Informant parallelism allows the classification of results of the demographic variables associated...
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The authors investigated the emergence of gender differences in clinical depression and the overall development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood among members of a complete birth cohort using a prospective longitudinal approach with structured diagnostic interviews administered 5 times over the course of 10 years. Small gender differences in depression (females greater than males) first began to emerge between the ages of 13 and 15. However, the greatest increase in this gend...
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#1Daniel S. PineH-Index: 110
#2Patricia CohenH-Index: 83
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Background Various studies find relationships among anxiety and depressive disorders of adolescence and adulthood. This study prospectively examines the magnitude of longitudinal associations between adolescent and adult anxiety or depressive disorders. Methods An epidemiologically selected sample of 776 young people living in upstate New York received DSM -based psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992 using structured interviews. The magnitude of the association between adolescent and a...
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#1Jerome Kagan (Harvard University)H-Index: 81
#2Nancy SnidmanH-Index: 33
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Nearly 2,000 years ago the Greek physician Galen postulated that much of human behavior could be predicted according to an individual's temperament. Now one of the country's most original thinkers provides startling new evidence to support Galen's ancient classification scheme of melancholic and sanguine adults.
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Identifying early risk factors for the development of social anxiety symptoms has important translational implications. Accurately identifying which children are at the highest risk is of critical importance, especially if we can identify risk early in development. We examined continued risk for social anxiety symptoms at the transition to adolescence in a community sample of children (n = 112) that had been observed for high fearfulness at age 2 and tracked for social anxiety symptoms from pres...
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#1Mary Lou Chatterton (Deakin University)H-Index: 15
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Abstract Objective A translational trial evaluated the effectiveness of screening for inhibited childhood temperament, followed by a preventive parenting program -Cool Little Kids. This study determined the cost-effectiveness from societal and health sector perspectives using trial data. Method Resources to deliver the screening and parenting sessions were determined from study records. Parents completed a questionnaire reporting resources used at one-year follow-up. Standard Australian unit cos...
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#2Aude HeninH-Index: 32
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Anxiety disorders represent the most common category of psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents and contribute to distress, impairment and dysfunction. Anxiety disorders or their temperamental precursors are often evident in early childhood, and anxiety can impair functioning, even during preschool age and in toddlerhood. A growing number of investigators have shown that anxiety in preschoolers can be treated efficaciously using cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) administered either by...
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#1Jessica Stoltzfus Grady (UOP: University of the Pacific (United States))H-Index: 3
Abstract Gentle encouragement to approach appears to reduce risk for anxiety and is commonly incorporated into parenting interventions for inhibited preschoolers, yet little is known regarding whether gentle encouragement facilitates in-the-moment regulation as shy or inhibited children face social novelty, particularly during the toddler period. The current study used a sample of 55 temperamentally shy toddlers (21–24 months old) to examine toddler regulation in novel social contexts in relatio...
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Question Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent childhood mental disorders. They also start early and persist, causing high individual and collective costs. To inform policy and practice, we therefore asked: What is the best available research evidence on preventing and treating these disorders? Methods We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions addressing anxiety problems in young people. We identified RCTs by searching CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Sc...
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