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Spontaneous recovery from extinction in the infant rat.

Published on Nov 1, 2014in Behavioural Brain Research2.77
· DOI :10.1016/j.bbr.2014.08.009
D.A. Revillo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council),
M.G. Paglini5
Estimated H-index: 5
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council),
Carlos Arias7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)
Abstract
Abstract Within the Pavlovian conditioning framework, extinction is a procedure in which, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US). During this procedure the conditioned response (CR) is gradually attenuated. It has been suggested that extinction during the early stages of ontogeny is a qualitatively different process from extinction in adulthood: during infancy, extinction may result in erasure of the memory, while during adulthood extinction involves new learning. This conclusion was supported by studies showing that renewal, reinstatement or spontaneous recovery procedures were not effective during infancy for recovering the CR once it had been extinguished. These studies used the freezing response as the only behavioral index, although some recent evidence indicates that the absence of freezing after conditioning or after extinction does not necessarily imply a deficit in memory, and that other behavioral indexes may be more sensitive to detecting conditioning effects. The goal of the present study was to analyze extinction in preweanling rats by examining the possibility of the spontaneous recovery of a conditioned fear response, measured through a different set of mutually-exclusive behaviors that constitute an exhaustive ethogram, and including control groups (Experiment 1: US-Only and CS-Only; Experiment 2: US-Only, CS-Only and Unpaired) in order to examine whether non-associative learning may explain quantitative or qualitative changes in the frequency of specific responses during extinction or recovery. Extinction produced changes in the expression of freezing, grooming and exploration, and the clearest evidence of spontaneous recovery came from the analysis of freezing behavior. The pattern of behavior observed during extinction is compatible with theoretical approaches which consider different dynamic behavioral systems, and it also fit in well with a molar approach to the analysis of behavior, which considers that extinction involves a transition from one allocation of time among behaviors to another allocation, rather than a loss of strength in any particular discrete response. These results have implications for the study of extinction during infancy, since they are compatible with the hypothesis that the original memory survives extinction, and highlight the importance of control conditions for detecting this effect during this ontogenetic period.
  • References (49)
  • Citations (12)
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References49
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#1Bridget L. McConnell (JCU: James Cook University)H-Index: 6
#2Ralph R. Miller (Binghamton University)H-Index: 51
Abstract Recovery-from-extinction effects (e.g., spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and facilitated reacquisition) have become the focus of much research in recent years. However, despite a great deal of empirical data, there are few theoretical explanations for these effects. This paucity poses a severe limitation on our understanding of these behavioral effects, impedes advances in uncovering neural mechanisms of response recovery, and reduces our potential to prevent relapse after ...
34 CitationsSource
#1D.A. Revillo (National University of Cordoba)H-Index: 5
#2Stefania Castello (National University of Cordoba)H-Index: 3
Last. Carlos Arias (National University of Cordoba)H-Index: 8
view all 4 authors...
Pavlovian extinction is defined as a reduction of the conditioned response (CR) as a consequence of repeated and nonreinforced presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS). This phenomenon has been explained through two nonexclusive associative hypotheses. One of them proposes that the CS–unconditioned stimulus (US) association is weakened during extinction, while the second one explains extinction by the formation of a new inhibitory association between the CS, and the US (CS–noUS) which comp...
14 CitationsSource
#1John Michael Holden (WSU: Winona State University)H-Index: 4
#2J. Bruce Overmier (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 29
Abstract Both acquisition and performance across delays are enhanced when each correct stimulus-response sequence in a conditional discrimination task is paired with a different reinforcing outcome, a procedure called differential outcomes (DO). It has been suggested that in the DO procedure, each discriminative stimulus comes to evoke an expectancy of a specific reward and this expectancy exerts stimulus control over choice behavior. Furthermore, expectancy control may reduce control by the dis...
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#1William M. Baum (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 36
Because the definition of behavior changes as our understanding of behavior changes, giving a final definition is impossible. One can, however, rule out some possibilities and propose some others based on what we currently know. Behavior is not simply movement, but must be defined by its function. Also, our understanding of behavior must agree with evolutionary theory. I suggest 4 basic principles: (a) only whole organisms behave; (b) behavior is purposive; (c) behavior takes time; and (d) behav...
23 CitationsSource
#1D.A. Revillo (National University of Cordoba)H-Index: 5
#2Juan Carlos Molina (National University of Cordoba)H-Index: 34
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Abstract Studies of extinction in preweanling rats have failed to find ABA-renewal in a fear conditioning paradigm. This result supports the hypothesis postulating ontogenetic qualitative differences in experimental extinction. A similar result in adult rats led to the conclusion that ABA-renewal requires contexts A and B to differ in several types of features, including odor cues. Recently we reported experimental evidence of the renewal of an extinguished taste aversion response in infant rats...
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#1Caitlin A. Orsini (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 11
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#1William M. Baum (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 36
Abstract The traditional molecular view of behavior explains extinction as the dissipation or inhibition of strength, formerly built up by contiguous reinforcement. In obstinate opposition to this explanation was the partial-reinforcement extinction effect: a partially reinforced response extinguishes more slowly than a continuously reinforced response. It suggests instead that extinction is discrimination. Four pigeons were exposed to daily sessions in which a variable period of food delivery, ...
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In mouse frontal cortex, fear conditioning and extinction cause dendritic spine elimination and, respectively, formation to occur on the same dendritic branches in a cue- and location-specific manner.
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The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—...
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