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Behavioral and physiological correlates of stress in laboratory cats

Published on Nov 1, 1993in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
· DOI :10.1016/0168-1591(93)90062-T
Kathy Carlstead19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Smithsonian Institution),
Janine L. Brown46
Estimated H-index: 46
(Smithsonian Institution),
William Strawn1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
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Abstract
Abstract Sixteen domestic cats were used to investigate the pituitary-adrenal, pituitary-gonadal and behavioral consequences of an unpredictable handling and husbandry routine. After a 10-day baseline period of standard laboratory procedures, eight cats (‘stressed cats’, STR) were subjected to a 21-day period of altered caretaking characterized by irregular feeding and cleaning times, absence of talking and petting by humans, and daily unpredictable manipulations. Eight control cats (CON group) were maintained for 21 days on the standard caretaking schedule. Behavior was recorded on time-lapse video 24 h day −1 , urine was collected daily for cortisol analyses, and hormone stimulation tests with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) were conducted before and after the 3-week treatment period. Results indicate that the STR cats were chronically stressed by the altered caretaking routine. Urinary cortisol concentrations were consistently elevated throughout the 3-week period, adrenal sensitivity to ACTH was enhanced and pituitary sensitivity to LHRH was reduced. Active exploratory and play behavior was suppressed, and STR cats spent more time awake/alert and attempting to hide. Hiding was negatively correlated with cortisol concentration and, therefore, may be an important behavior for coping with uncontrollable and unpredictable captive environments. These results indicate that qualitatively poor caretaking is a potent psychological stressor for confined cats that may eventually compromise reproduction through behavioral or physiological mechanisms. To promote well-being, caged cats should be provided with appropriate places for concealment.
  • References (82)
  • Citations (217)
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References82
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 1993in Zoo Biology 1.15
Kathy Carlstead19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Smithsonian Institution),
Janine L. Brown46
Estimated H-index: 46
(Smithsonian Institution),
John Seidensticker20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Smithsonian Institution)
Indicators of environmental adequacy relevant to the well-being of small felids are developed by examining, in 4 captive leopard cats, interrelationships between behavioral and adrenocortical responses to changes in housing conditions. Singly housed cats were moved from their barren home cage (Cage 1, baseline) sequentially to 2 new, barren housing situations (Cages 2 and 3; ≈ 10 weeks/cage). Urinary cortisol concentrations, stereotypic pacing, and hiding frequencies were transiently increased f...
Published on Jan 1, 1992in Zoo Biology 1.15
Kathy Carlstead19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Smithsonian Institution),
Janine L. Brown46
Estimated H-index: 46
(Smithsonian Institution)
+ 2 AuthorsDavid E. Wildt67
Estimated H-index: 67
(Smithsonian Institution)
The potential of assessing adrenal responses to psychological stressors through the radioimmunoassay of free cortisol in urine was examined in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and in three nondomestic felid species (Felis geoffroyi, Felis bengalensis, and Felis concolor). To determine the approximate clearance rate of an acute increase in glucocorticoid secretion, serial plasma and bladder urine samples were collected from eight domestic cats after a 0.125 mg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cha...
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Jeffrey Rushen50
Estimated H-index: 50
(U of A: University of Alberta)
Abstract Claims about animal welfare based on data regarding the pituitary-adrenocortical axis should be viewed with scepticism because of the lack of consistency between the results of different studies. Occasional sampling of blood does not give an accurate description of the episodic nature of corticosteroid secretion. Too little is known about how chronic stress affects the activity of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis, or whether changes in mean daily level or in the nature of the secretory...
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Zoo Biology 1.15
Jill D. Mellen7
Estimated H-index: 7
Environmental, genetic, and social factors associated with captive maintenance of small felids (Felis spp.) were systematically examined at eight different zoos to determine which of these factors most closely correlated with successful reproduction. Almost half of all the pairings examined failed to produce offspring. However, at least some representatives of the 20 species examined successfully reproduced, suggesting that failure to breed could not be solely attributed to species specific requ...
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Neuroendocrinology 6.80
Sonia del Cerro3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Cajal Institute),
José Borrell22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Cajal Institute)
Corticosterone production in isolated adrenocortical cells from adult male Wistar rats subjected to different emotional situations and the possible relationship between adrenocortical and behavioral r
Published on Jan 1, 1991in Journal of Dairy Science 3.08
Gary P. Moberg27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis)
Abstract Behavioral stress can prevent animals from achieving normal reproductive success. Stressors associated with intensive livestock management may be responsible for reduced reproductive efficiency. However, before appropriate management decisions can be made to alleviate the effects of behavioral stress on reproduction, it is necessary to identify the mechanisms by which stress disrupts normal reproduction. The neuroendocrine regulation of follicular development and ovulation requires a co...
Published on May 1, 1990in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
A.L. Hargreaves5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Melbourne),
G.D. Hutson14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Melbourne)
Abstract Repeated exposure to a handling treatment was investigated as a possible method of reducing the stress response to shearing. Sheep were exposed to sham shearing (a procedure in which no wool is removed, but which otherwise resembles shearing) on four occasions at two-week intervals. The peak cortisol response to this procedure was not affected, but concentrations of plasma cortisol declined more rapidly to lower baseline concentrations after four exposures. Basal haematocrit also declin...
Published on Feb 1, 1990in Biological Rhythm Research 0.77
Walter Randall12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UI: University of Iowa),
J Thomascunningham20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UI: University of Iowa),
Steffani Randall2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UI: University of Iowa)
Abstract Actograms of domestic cats were obtained in two settings, in a large animal colony where there were many cats and people, and in isolation in sound‐attenuating rooms. For the four cats that were studied in individual isolation, freeruns were obtained in constant dark, and then recordings of sounds from the animal colony were presented once a day at the same time for eight hours. Entrainment by the colony sounds was demonstrated in three of the four cats. The cats in the main colony exhi...
Published on Jul 1, 1989in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
P.H. Hemsworth48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Animal Research Institute),
J.L. Barnett22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Animal Research Institute)
+ 1 AuthorsC. F. Hansen23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Animal Research Institute)
Abstract This study examined the relationships between the attitude of the stockperson, the behaviour of the stockperson, the level of fear of humans by sows and reproductive performance at 19 commercial farms. The attitude of the stockperson was measured with respect to the stockperson's opinion of the pig's behaviour and how the stockperson evaluated his own behaviour, and the observations on the stockperson's behaviour concentrated on the nature of the physical interactions directed towards p...
Published on Jun 1, 1989in Physiology & Behavior 2.63
B.A. Becker1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MU: University of Missouri),
R. K. Christenson24
Estimated H-index: 24
(USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)
+ 3 AuthorsG. L. Hahn7
Estimated H-index: 7
(USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)
Abstract Adrenal and behavioral responses in swine restricted to varying degrees of mobility were examined to determine what component may impose chronic stress. The components of restriction considered were the inability to turn around and/or move freely. For 5 to 6 weeks 32 pigs were restrained such that pigs A) could move freely; B) could not turn around or move freely; C) could not turn around but could move back and forth the same distance as pigs in A; or D) could turn around but not move ...
Cited By217
Newest
Published in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Rachel Foreman-Worsley (NTU: Nottingham Trent University), Mark J. Farnworth14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NTU: Nottingham Trent University)
Abstract Cats are one of the world’s most populous companion animals, yet little is known about how the home environment is adapted relative to their needs. Outdoor access is thought to be beneficial for both the physical and mental wellbeing of cats, yet as urbanisation increases, reducing owner access to outdoor spaces, an increasing number of cats are kept strictly indoors. The impact of an indoor lifestyle on feline behaviour and welfare is little explored and poorly understood. This study u...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 1.58
Lisa D. Morrow1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Nottingham),
Tj Gruffydd-Jones38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 2 AuthorsJ. K. Murray18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UoB: University of Bristol)
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a patient-side blood test in determining neuter status in female cats. Residual blood samples from female cats of unknown neuter status that were admitted to four cat adoption centres in the UK were tested for luteinising hormone (LH) using the Witness LH test (Zoetis). A positive LH test result indicated that the cat was neutered. Cats were assessed for evidence of a surgical scar suggestive of prior neutering; if none was found, an explora...
Published on May 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Mikel M. Delgado5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UC Davis: University of California, Davis),
Mikel Delgado (UC Davis: University of California, Davis), Julie Hecht (Hunter College)
Abstract Although attention to domestic cat ( Felis silvestris catus ) behavior and cognition has increased in recent years, numerous questions remain regarding their play. Few studies have included play as a variable of interest, and to the best of our knowledge no behavioral studies focusing on cat play have been published in the last 15 years, and there is no recent review of our current understanding of its development, behavioral components, function, or outstanding research questions. This...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Petra T. Edwards (University of Adelaide), Bradley P. Smith10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Adelaide)
+ 1 AuthorsSusan J. Hazel13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Adelaide)
Abstract For many dogs, receiving veterinary care can be a stressful, fearful or traumatic experience. However, understanding and improving the veterinary experience for dogs is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the veterinary visit, the number of stakeholders involved (veterinarian, guardian and dog), and the perception and prior experience of the dog. The majority of recommendations for reducing stress typically fall to either the owner or the veterinarian and involve changes to managem...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 1.58
Marta Amat9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Autonomous University of Barcelona),
X. Manteca28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Autonomous University of Barcelona)
Practical relevance:Aggression towards owners is a common behavioural problem in cats, particularly in cats that have been obtained from pet shops or other sources where there has been inadequate socialisation with people, and in those kept only indoors. Very often aggression is associated with a stress response and it may potentially lead to relinquishment and euthanasia of the cat. Therefore, preventing and treating owner-directed aggression has significant benefits for the welfare of the cat ...
Published on Feb 5, 2019in PLOS ONE 2.78
Lauren R. Finka (University of Lincoln), Joanna Ward (University of Lincoln)+ 1 AuthorsDaniel Mills29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Lincoln)
Human personality may substantially affect the nature of care provided to dependants. This link has been well researched in parents and children, however, relatively little is known about this dynamic with regards to humans’ relationships with non-human animals. Owner interactions with companion animals may provide valuable insight into the wider phenomenon of familial interactions, as owners usually adopt the role of primary caregiver and potentially surrogate parent. This study, using cats as ...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
Rachel A. Grant (University of Northampton), Jennifer Rose Warrior (Oxford Brookes University)
Abstract The rescue shelter environment is known to be stressful for domestic cats, which can lead to them becoming less active, playful and exploratory as well as spending a long time hiding. Early adoption can prevent long term stress in shelter cats, but adopters often look at behaviour and friendliness as criteria when choosing a cat to rehome. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a clicker training intervention to promote behaviours indicative of improved welfare and increase the potent...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Applied Animal Behaviour Science 1.82
C. Duranton , Alexandra Horowitz9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Barnard College)
Abstract When confronted with an ambiguous stimulus, an individual’s perception of and behaviour towards the situation are affected by emotional states. In a new situation, positive emotional states lead to optimistic reactions; negative emotional states, to pessimistic reactions. This phenomenon is related to welfare and is well-studied in humans and other animals via the cognitive bias test. This test is often used in applied ethology, especially for captive animals, and assesses the emotional...
Published on Dec 7, 2018
Irene Rochlitz1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
James Yeates1
Estimated H-index: 1
Published on Sep 4, 2018in PeerJ 2.35
Caterina Spiezio9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Valentina Valsecchi (UNIPD: University of Padua)+ 1 AuthorsBarbara Regaiolli3
Estimated H-index: 3