Family functioning in bipolar I disorder.
In a sample of 62 patients with Bipolar I disorder, the authors used a repeated measures longitudinal design to examine whether global family functioning was associated with the presence of a concurrent bipolar episode as well as whether global family functioning was associated with the presence of manic and depressive episodes in the following 3 months. Participants were recruited for a randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of family treatments combined with pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. Global family functioning was repeatedly measured with both clinician-rated and patient-rated assessment instruments over the 28-month study period. Results indicated that mood episodes were associated with concurrent global family functioning within individuals, but global family functioning was not associated with episode status in the subsequent 3 months. The repeated measures nature of these results suggests that global family functioning and bipolar episodes may fluctuate in concert with each other but that global family functioning is not associated with subsequent change in episode status.