Gender differences in depression in 23 European countries. Cross-national variation in the gender gap in depression

Published on Jul 1, 2010in Social Science & Medicine 3.01
· DOI :10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.03.035
Sarah Van de Velde11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Ghent University),
Piet Bracke25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Ghent University),
Katia Levecque16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Ghent University)
One of the most consistent findings in the social epidemiology of mental health is the gender gap in depression. Depression is approximately twice as prevalent among women as it is among men. However, the absence of comparable data hampers cross-national comparisons of the prevalence of depression in general populations. Using information about the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms from the third wave of the European Social Survey (ESS-3), we are able to fill the gap the absence of comparable data leaves. In the ESS-3, depression is measured with an eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. In the current study, we examine depression among men and women aged 18-75 in 23 European countries. Our results indicate that women report higher levels of depression than men do in all countries, but there is significant cross-national variation in this gender gap. Gender differences in depression are largest in some of the Eastern and Southern European countries and smallest in Ireland, Slovakia and some Nordic countries. Hierarchical linear models show that socioeconomic as well as family-related factors moderate the relationship between gender and depression. Lower risk of depression is associated in both genders with marriage and cohabiting with a partner as well as with having a generally good socioeconomic position. In a majority of countries, socioeconomic factors have the strongest association with depression in both men and women. This research contributes new findings, expanding the small existing body of literature that presents highly comparable data on the prevalence of depression in women and men in Europe.
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  • Citations (282)
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Psychology of Women Quarterly 2.97
Stephanie A. Shields23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Pennsylvania State University),
Dallas N. Garner1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Pennsylvania State University)
+ 1 AuthorsAlena M. Hadley1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Pennsylvania State University)
In this chapter we consider the relation between gender and emotion, particularly as that connection is expressed in stereotyping, power relations, and sexuality. As we review pertinent research we strive to move beyond the conventional “gender differences” model that has tended to dominate the study of gender and emotion. We propose two useful theoretical frameworks for investigating the gender-emotion link. The first, expectation states theory (Berger et al. 1977; Ridgeway and Correll 2004), i...
322 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2005in ULB Institutional Repository
Danièle Meulders13
Estimated H-index: 13
Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 1 AuthorsChantal Remery10
Estimated H-index: 10
Daniele Meulders & Sile O’Dorchai, Belgium (BE) Roselyn Borg, Malta (MT) Alena Křižkova, Hana Mařikova and Radka Janneke Plantenga, the Netherlands (NL) Dudova, the Czech Republic (CZ) Ingrid Mairhuber, Austria (AT) Ruth Emerek, Denmark (DK) Ania Plomien, Poland (PL) Friederike Maier, Germany (DE) Virginia Ferreira, Portugal (PT) Anu Laas, Estonia (EE) Aleksandra Kanjuo Mrcela, Slovenia (SI) Maria Karamessini, Greece (EL) Magdalena Piscova, Slovakia (SK) Maria Luisa Molto, Spain (ES) Anna-Maija ...
92 Citations
Published on Mar 1, 2007in Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2.92
Maria Victoria Zunzunegui37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Université de Montréal),
Nadia Minicuci25
Estimated H-index: 25
+ 4 AuthorsNancy L. Pedersen100
Estimated H-index: 100
(Karolinska Institutet)
Objectives To assess country-specific gender differences in depressive symptoms and to explore if exposures and vulnerabilities vary by gender among older men and women from four European countries and Israel.
62 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 28, 2003
Janet C. Gornick26
Estimated H-index: 26
Marcia K. Meyers23
Estimated H-index: 23
this book. It engages with theoretical debatesabout materialist versus post-materialist poli-tics, old versus new social movements, and thelike, but does not get bogged down in them,instead staying firmly rooted in the empiricalmaterials at hand. It also very productivelyapplies the resource mobilization theory of so-cial movements to develop an original and po-tentially powerful analysis of coalitions.Another strength of the book is that it movesbeyond static analyses of workers’ and environ-me...
624 Citations
Published on Oct 1, 2007in International Journal of Social Welfare 0.76
Clare Bambra42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Durham University)
The role of gender as a source of social stratification within and between welfare states is increasingly being paid attention to in the welfare state regimes debate. Defamilisation has emerged as a potentially important concept in this context, as it enables the comparison and classification of welfare states in terms of how they facilitate female autonomy and economic independence from the family. However, the methodology used, or the understanding of the concept, limits existing defamilisatio...
107 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2000in Journal of European Social Policy 1.54
Gillian Pascall12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Nottingham),
Nicholas Manning11
Estimated H-index: 11
How are the distinctive gender regimes in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union changing? What is the impact of the transition - and especially of the loss of state expenditure and state legitimacy - on women as paid workers, partners/wives, mothers, carers and citizens? Have women become more familialized as a result of transition processes? The Monee statistical database of 27 countries, and policy questionnaires to 12, show growing social, economic and cultural diversity. But...
159 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 1997in Journal of Affective Disorders 3.79
Jules Angst77
Estimated H-index: 77
(University of Zurich),
Kathleen R. Merikangas100
Estimated H-index: 100
(Yale University)
Abstract The spectrum of depression is much wider than that reflected in the current diagnostic nomenclature. A large proportion of subjects with depression both in treatment and in the community fail to meet diagnostic criteria for either major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymia. Inclusion of subthreshold categories of depression dramatically improves the coverage of treated depression, particularly in community samples, and better enables the characterization of its longitudinal course. Th...
235 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2002in Comprehensive Psychiatry 2.13
Stewart A. Shankman23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Stony Brook University),
Daniel N. Klein71
Estimated H-index: 71
(Stony Brook University)
Abstract It has long been debated whether depression is best classified with a categorical or dimensional diagnostic system. There has been surprisingly little discussion, however, of what the contents of a dimensional classification should include, with most studies employing a single dimension based on symptom severity. The present study explored whether a dimension based on prior course of depression increases the validity of a dimensional model based on symptom severity alone and whether the...
17 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1992in Social Science & Medicine 3.01
R.L.I. Leeflang2
Estimated H-index: 2
D.J. Klein-Hesselink2
Estimated H-index: 2
I.P. Spruit2
Estimated H-index: 2
A comparison is made of the life situation and health effects of short term and long term unemployment in 30-50 year old urban men and women. The people under study were employed in an administrative branch of the labour market. Women's situation with reference to the labour market is more complicated than men's situation. In addition to the official, registered unemployment, only among women a substantial hidden unemployment exists. Health is measured by self reported diagnosed chronic diseases...
49 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1989in Journal of Health and Social Behavior 2.62
Leonard I. Pearlin36
Estimated H-index: 36
This paper presents a critical overview of current concepts and analytic practices in stress research and considers how they can be changed to make the research more consistent with core sociological interests. An overarching concern of the paper is the analytic use of basic information about people's social and institutional affiliations and statuses. It is important that such information be treated not simply as data that need to be controlled statistically; we must examine the bearing of thes...
1,935 Citations Source Cite
Cited By282
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Studies in Economics and Econometrics
Cally Ardington12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Cape Town),
Anne Case46
Estimated H-index: 46
his paper investigates the association between mental health and socioeconomic status and assesses the extent to which the correlates of depression change over the life cycle. Mean depression scores for South Africans are markedly higher than those found in other countries. There are large differences in depression between population groups. For both men and women, sixty percent of the gap between Africans and whites can be explained by their socioeconomic status. Household expenditure per membe...
24 Citations
Published on Dec 1, 2016in Social Science & Medicine 3.01
Stijn Baert11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Catholic University of Leuven),
Sarah De Visschere1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ghent University)
+ 1 AuthorsEddy Omey10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Ghent University)
This study assesses hiring discrimination based on disclosed depression. We send out pairs of job applications from fictitious unemployed candidates to real vacancies in Belgium. Within each pair, one candidate cites depression as the reason for her/his unemployment, whereas the other candidate reveals no reason for unemployment. Overall, the hypothesis that applicants disclosing former depression are treated unfavourably is rejected. However, if we break up the data by the gender of the recruit...
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Personality and Individual Differences 1.97
Reuma Gadassi11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Bar-Ilan University),
Eshkol Rafaeli19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Bar-Ilan University)
Abstract Our review proposes interpersonal perception as a mediator of the association between depression and interpersonal difficulties. Research suggests that such perception occurs on two levels. The first (Emotional Sharing System; ESS), basic and automatic, involves perceiving cues from others' nonverbal behavior. The second (Mental State Attribution System; MSAS), effortful and deliberate, involves inferring others' inner states using various sources of information. Evidence shows that dep...
4 Citations Source Cite
Sarah Fatima (Dow University of Health Sciences), Tahira Zubair (Dow University of Health Sciences)+ 6 AuthorsJunaid Ahmed (Dow University of Health Sciences)
Objective: To determine frequency of depression in patients and their healthy attendants at medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi. Patients M p value <0.001). No difference in frequency of depression was found on basis of marital status but significant differences were found on the basis of gender, education and occupation. Conclusion: Significant numbers of patients attending the medical OPD were depressed
Published on Mar 1, 2011in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 3.18
Darlene A. Kertes1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Florida State University),
Gursharan Kalsi28
Estimated H-index: 28
+ 5 AuthorsBrien P. Riley48
Estimated H-index: 48
(King's College London)
Background: Depressive symptoms are common among individuals with alcohol use disorders and impact treatment outcome. Substantial overlap exists among the neurobiological systems proposed in the pathophysiology of depressive and alcohol use disorders; however, specific genetic effects contributing to risk for depressive comorbidity remain poorly understood. Methods: This study examines the association of depressive symptom scores for lifetime depression (the sum of DSM-IV major depression co-end...
31 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2012in Geriatrics & Gerontology International 2.66
Yili Wu8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Qingdao University),
Dongfeng Zhang12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Qingdao University)
+ 7 AuthorsQihua Tan30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Southern Denmark)
Aim: Studies carried out in Western populations have shown age-related changes in multiple health domains together with gender-specific patterns. By focusing on five health domains, self-rated health, hand grip strength, sit-to-stand test, cognitive performance and depression, we examined the age trajectories in general health in a cross-sectional Chinese sample representing the world's largest ethnic population and compare with Danish data that represent Western populations in developed countri...
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2015in Revista Brasileira De Epidemiologia
Sabrina Martins Barroso4
Estimated H-index: 4
Ana Paula Souto Melo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei),
Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais)
INTRODUCTION: The Quilombola population is subject to numerous sources of social vulnerability, but few studies investigate their physical or mental health conditions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors associated with depression in men and women, separately. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional population-based study with 764 randomly selected participants from five quilombo communities in Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The cutoff point for depression was ≥ 10 points, assessed by the Patient ...
2 Citations Source Cite
Julie Ledrich3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Bordeaux),
Kamel Gana10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Bordeaux)
Background. The aim of this study was to examine the intricate relationship between some personality traits (i.e., attributional style, perceived control over consequences, self-esteem), and depressive mood in a nonclinical sample (N= 334). Method. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate five competing models: two vulnerability models describing the effects of personality traits on depressive mood, one scar model describing the effects of depression on personality traits, a mixed mode...
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2016in Biological Trace Element Research 2.36
Afsaneh Rajizadeh2
Estimated H-index: 2
Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 1 AuthorsAli Dehghani4
Estimated H-index: 4
Depression is the most common mental disorder and involves many factors. The regulatory effects of magnesium on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channels make it a factor in the treatment of depression. The present study investigated the level of serum magnesium in subjects diagnosed with depression in the city of Yazd in Iran. This cross-sectional study was done from January 2013 to January 2014 on 650 patients with depression who agreed to participate in this study. Diagnosis was made using the Bec...
5 Citations Source Cite
Shervin Assari31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Michigan),
Valerie Micol-Foster2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsMaryam Moghani Lankarani19
Estimated H-index: 19
Contextual factors such as ethnicity, gender, place, and their intersections determine the social condition that populations and individuals live in. As a result, environmental stressors that shape exposures, and also resilience and vulnerabilities are specific to the population. This emphasizes the role of the intersection of such contextual factors in studying psychosocial causes of depression. The aim of this case study is to review the role of war related stress as a unique environmental cau...
2 Citations Source Cite