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Protection by Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses (NDV) Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) Subtype A or B against Challenge with Virulent NDV and aMPV

Published on Jan 1, 2013in World Journal of Vaccines
· DOI :10.4236/wjv.2013.34018
Qingzhong Yu14
Estimated H-index: 14
(USDA: United States Department of Agriculture),
Jason P. Roth3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 3 AuthorsLaszlo Zsak28
Estimated H-index: 28
Abstract
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are threatening avian pathogens that can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. Vaccination, combined with strict biosecurity practices, has been the recommendation for controlling these diseases in the field. In the present study, we generated NDV LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing the glycoprotein (G) of aMPV, subtype A or B, using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were characterized in cell cultures and evaluated in turkeys as bivalent, next-generation vaccines. The results showed that these recombinant vaccine candi-dates were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintained similar growth dynamics, cytopathic effects, and virus titers in vitro when compared to the parental LaSota virus. The expression of the aMPV G protein in recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence. Vaccination of turkeys with rLS/aMPV-A G or rLS/aMPV-B G conferred complete protection against velogenic NDV, CA02 strain challenge and partial protection against homologous patho-genic aMPV challenge. These results suggest that the LaSota recombinant virus is a safe and effective vaccine vector and expression of the G protein alone is not sufficient to provide full protection against aMPV-A or -B infections. Ex-pression of other aMPV-A or -B virus immunogenic protein(s) individually or in conjunction with the G protein may be necessary to induce stronger and more protective immunity against aMPV diseases.
  • References (37)
  • Citations (7)
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References37
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#1Haixia Hu (JLU: Jilin University)H-Index: 3
#2Jason P. Roth (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 3
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SUMMARY. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens, which is usually accompanied by secondary infections that increase mortality. AMPVs circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial chicken and turkey farms were detected using a universal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay that can detect the four recognized subtypes of AMPV. The AMPV status of 228 farms with respiratory and reproductive disturbances w...
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The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the function of the M2-2 protein in virus replication, the non-overlapping region of the M2-2 ORF was deleted from an infectious cDNA clone of the aMPV-C strain, and a viable virus was rescued by using reverse genetics...
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Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produ...
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Abstract Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were chall...
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Abstract Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler c...
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