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Crystallization of satellite tobacco mosaic virus. I. Nucleation phenomena

Published on Feb 1, 1993in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
· DOI :10.1016/0022-0248(93)90804-6
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Josephine Cheung1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Cite
Abstract
Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) was used to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation events in the crystallization of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). Under conditions of relatively moderate supersaturation (σ ≈ 1.00–1.40), the critical nuclear size supportive of stable crystal growth, Rc, was estimated from time dependent size distribution analyses to be in the range of 30 to 7 virus particles respectively. From the same data, the molar interfacial free energy and the activation energy for crystal growth was deduced to be 2.2 and 10 kcal/mol, respectively. These, we believe represent the first such estimates for virus crystal growth. The acceleration of nucleation and crystal growth by the introduction of heterogeneous nucleants (latex microspheres) was demonstrated.
  • References (19)
  • Citations (37)
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References19
Newest
Published on Nov 5, 2011
Robert Pecora1
Estimated H-index: 1
1 Introduction.- References.- 2 Light Scattering Apparatus.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Electromagnetic Waves.- 2.3. Light Scattering.- 2.3.1. Background.- 2.3.2. Fluctuations.- 2.3.3. The Coherence Area.- 2.3.4. Time Dependence.- 2.3.5. Local Oscillator.- 2.4. The Light Scattering Experiment.- 2.4.1. Introduction.- 2.4.2. The Light Source.- 2.4.3. The Spectrometer.- 2.4.4. The Detector.- 2.4.5. Signal Analyzers.- 2.5. Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 2.5.1. Introduction.- 2.5.2. Effects due to Finite Inte...
Published on Feb 1, 1993in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
A Malkin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) was used to investigate nucleation and post nucleation events in the crystallization of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV). The diameter of monomer STMV was measured to be ≈ 16 nm, which corresponds well with data from electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results. The data suggests that the rate limiting factor in STMV crystal growth is the diffusion of virus clusters to the growing crystal nucleus rather than the probability of incorporatio...
Published on Mar 1, 1991in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
S.D. Durbin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego),
G. Feher3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Abstract The main features of the observed crystal growth of the protein lysozyme are reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations based on a simple model. The free parameters of the model are the strengths of the three main types of protein-protein contacts occurring in the P4 3 2 1 2 lattice of the tetragonal form of lysozyme and the equilibrium rate of attachment of molecules to lattice sites. The simulated crystal surfaces, like the actual surfaces observed by electron microscopy, display structure...
Published on Mar 1, 1991in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Stanley Koszelak12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
David Martin33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
+ 1 AuthorsAlexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Time lapse video microscopy has been used to make qualitative observations of the events that transpire during normal and abnormal protein crystal growth. It has also been used to make quantitative assessments of growth rates for a variety of different protein crystals. From analyses of the growth rates, we have estimated that in the most rapidly growing crystals we have recorded, as many as 20 layers of protein molecules add to a single crystal face per second. In the slowest cases of ...
Published on May 1, 1990in Journal of Molecular Biology 5.07
Vincent Mikol7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique),
Ernest Hirsch6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Richard Giegé53
Estimated H-index: 53
(CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)
The translational diffusion coefficient D 25,w of hen egg-white lysozyme and concanavalin A from the jack bean is measured in various precipitating agent solutions as a function of salt and protein concentration using quasi-elastic light-scattering. With some precipitants, in undersaturated protein solutions, a protein or salt concentration dependence of the diffision coefficient of the scatterers is observed. It can be correlated with the inability of the protein to crystallize in this precipit...
Published on Apr 1, 1990in Journal of Molecular Biology 5.07
S.D. Durbin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego),
G. Feher49
Estimated H-index: 49
(UCSD: University of California, San Diego)
Abstract We have used electron microscopy to examine the surfaces of lysozyme crystals and deduce mechanisms of crystal growth. We find that growth occurs by a lattice defect mechanism at low supersaturation and by two-dimensional nucleation at high supersaturation. Step velocities and two-dimensional nucleation rates are obtained, and their dependence on supersaturation is compared with theory. Some features of the observed surface structure can be related to the specific topology and strengths...
Published on Apr 1, 1990in FEBS Journal 4.74
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Given our current expertise, and the certain future developments in genetically altering organisms to produce proteins of modified structure and function, the concept of protein engineering is nearing reality. Similarly, our ability to describe and utilize protein structure and to define interactions with ligands has made possible the rational design of new drugs and pharmacological agents. Even in the absence of any intention toward applied use or value, the correlation of regulation, mechanism...
Published on Sep 1, 1989in Journal of Molecular Biology 5.07
Stanley Koszelak12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
James Allan Dodds1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UCR: University of California, Riverside),
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCR: University of California, Riverside)
Abstract Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV), a small T = 1 icosahedral plant virus, has been crystallized in a form suitable for high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals, which diffract to better than 2.5 A resolution, are of space group I 222 and have unit cell dimensions of a = 176 A , b = 192 A and c = 205 A . The centers of the virus particles occupy 222 symmetry points in the unit cell and one quarter of the virus particle constitutes the asymmetric unit, which is therefo...
Published on Oct 1, 1988in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
A.A. Chernov1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
A.I. Malkin1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract A technique has been developed to automatically measure normal growth rates as low as 3 × 10 -9 cm/s and higher, the tangential growth rates and hillock slopes. The method was applied to the (101) ADP growth in the kinetic regime at various supersaturations 0.05% σ ⋍ 8.5 × 10 −7 erg/cm (corresponding to the surface energy of 16 erg/cm 2 ), and the step kinetic coefficient (i.e. the rate of incorporation at the steps), ⋍ 0.3 cm/s. The rates of growth (incorporation) and dissolution at st...
Published on Jul 1, 1988in Journal of Crystal Growth 1.57
Franz Rosenberger30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville),
Edward J. Meehan16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UAH: University of Alabama in Huntsville)
The potential advantages of nucleation and growth control through temperature, rather than the addition of precipitants or removal of solvent, are discussed. A simple light scattering arrangement for the characterization of nucleation and growth conditions in solutions is described. The temperature dependence of the solubility of low ionic strength lysozyme solutions is applied in preliminary nucleation and growth experiments.
Cited By37
Newest
Published on Jan 2, 2015in Crystallography Reviews 2.67
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
Steven B. Larson13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
Determining the structure of an icosahedral virus crystal by X-ray diffraction follows very much the same course as conventional protein crystallography. The major differences arise from the relatively large sizes of the particles, which significantly affect the data collection process, data processing and management, and later, the refinement of a model. Most of the other differences are due to the high 5 3 2 point group symmetry of icosahedral viruses. This alters dramatically the means by whi...
Published on Jul 10, 2013
Dimitra Nikolaidi (University of Nottingham)
Structure elucidation of a macromolecule can lead to the determination of its function. In the case of proteins, knowledge of their three-dimensional structure can be utilised in the identification of active site(s) and consequently in rational drug design. Commonly, X-ray crystallography is implemented on a high quality single crystal of the target macromolecule, in order to elucidate its structure. Moreover, crystallised protein molecules may remain active which can then be used in controlled ...
Published on Nov 1, 2009in Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology 2.70
Victor M. Bolanos-Garcia22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Cambridge),
Naomi E. Chayen33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Imperial College London)
Novel strategies and techniques that are based on conventional crystallization methods for crystallizing proteins are described and discussed. New directions for rendering proteins and protein complexes to become more amenable to crystallization are also presented.
Published on Jul 1, 2005in Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology 2.70
Naomi E. Chayen33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Imperial College London)
The availability of high-quality crystals is crucial to the structure determination of proteins by X-ray diffraction. With the advent of structural genomics the pressure to produce crystals is greater than ever before. Finding favourable conditions for crystallisation is usually achieved by screening of the protein solution with numerous crystallising agents. Optimisation of the crystallisation conditions involves the manipulation of the crystallisation phase diagram with the aim of leading crys...
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
There are five broad areas where noteworthy advances have occurred in the field of macromolecular crystallization in the past 10 years, though some areas have seen the major part of those advances in only the last two years. This is largely a consequence of the international structural genomics initiative and its early results. The five areas are: (1) Physical studies and characterization of the protein crystallization process; (2) Development of new practical approaches and procedures; (3) The ...
Published on Apr 1, 2003in Journal of Structural Biology 3.75
Alexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
Yu. G. Kuznetsov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
+ 1 AuthorsMarco Plomp15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
Direct visualization of macromolecular crystal growth using atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool in the delineation of mechanisms and the kinetics of the growth process. It has further allowed us to evaluate the wide variety of impurities that are incorporated into crystals of proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses. We can, using AFM, image the defects and imperfections that afflict these crystals, the impurity layers that poison their surfaces, and the consequences of variou...
Jie Lu16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Pui-Shan Chow1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Keith Carpenter1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The detailed understanding of the structure of biological macromolecules reveals their functions and is thus important in the design of new medicines and for engineering molecules with improved properties for industrial applications. However, obtaining high-quality crystals of proteins for determining structures is still quite difficult in general, and successful protein crystallization remains largely empirical and operator-dependent. In this work, a microcalorimetric technique has bee...
Published on Jan 1, 2002in ChemInform
Gen Sazaki29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Tohoku University),
Shin-ichiro Yanagiya11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Tohoku University)
+ 7 AuthorsM. Motokawa2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Tohoku University)
Many studies in applying a magnetic field to control crystal growth processes have been carried out since the 1960s; in particular, magnetic fields have been widely applied for damping convection in semiconductor melts [1, 2, 3]. However, except for this magnetic damping effect on conducting liquids, no significant phenomenon that could be attributed to a magnetic field effect was found in the field of crystal growth until the late 1990s. In recent years, rapid developments in superconducting ma...
Published on Sep 1, 2001in Journal of General Virology 2.81
Yu. G. Kuznetsov19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
Alexander J. Malkin22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
+ 2 AuthorsAlexander McPherson53
Estimated H-index: 53
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image a variety of virus particles in vitro and could, conceivably, be used as a useful diagnostic for their presence, their structural characterization and even their identification. Virus particles can be imaged by AFM in air, under alcohol or in physiological medium, and accurate measurements of their dimensions obtained. In addition, the appearance and organization of capsomere structures on their surfaces are frequently visible. A number of vir...