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The importance of grain or kernel number in wheat : A reply to Sinclair and Jamieson

Published on Jan 1, 2008in Field Crops Research3.87
· DOI :10.1016/j.fcr.2007.04.002
R.A. Fischer6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
Cite
Abstract
Abstract This paper is a response to Sinclair and Jamieson [Sinclair, T.R., Jamieson, P.D., 2006. Grain number, wheat yield, and bottling beer: an analysis. Field Crops Res. 98, 60–67] who propose that bulk carbon and nitrogen accumulation are fundamental to grain yield determination in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), while challenging the common approach to yield through the separate processes of grain number determination, followed by grain filling, as governed by source–sink balance then. The response focuses on yield determination under potential conditions for which genetic and agronomic progress is clearly associated with increased grain number, herein abbreviated to KNO (kernels m −2 ). It argues that grain yield in modern cultivars is still limited by post-anthesis sink (KNO) and that understanding KNO determination is therefore useful for predicting physiological routes to higher yield. KNO determination appears to be strongly related to dry matter accumulation in spikes at anthesis (g m −2 ), governed by events in the last 20–30 days before anthesis, while some modern cultivars show higher grain number per unit spike weight. Post-anthesis photosynthesis and crop dry weight accumulation have increased as KNO has increased with breeding. There is no evidence for effects of N on KNO apart from those operating via dry matter accumulation, or for grain N demand limiting post-anthesis photosynthesis. Beyond this simple model, several other linkages that might exist between the pre- and post-anthesis periods are explored. Such linkages could help maintain the balance between the post-anthesis sink and the source required to fill the sink, and constitute common underlying processes which to some extent reconcile the model of Sinclair and Jamieson (2006) with current mainstream thinking about grain yield in wheat. Reports of an increasing amount of pre-anthesis carbohydrate reserves in the crop with breeding progress is a good example, but overall it is concluded that at least under potential conditions, the commonly accepted approach to grain yield determination is not invalidated by Sinclair and Jamieson (2006).
  • References (52)
  • Citations (127)
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References52
Newest
Published on Apr 1, 2007in The Journal of Agricultural Science1.33
R. A. Fischer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research)
The present paper focuses on the physiology of yield potential in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), because breeding progress in yield potential has overtaken farm yield progress. The paper examines developments largely in the last 10 years seeking routes to higher yield potential. Lately this subject has come under pressure from two new imperatives: perceived slowing of genetic progress and ambitious functional genomics. Analysis of trials between 1996 and 2005 at the CIANO research centre in north...
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Anthony G. Condon34
Estimated H-index: 34
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Matthew P. Reynolds61
Estimated H-index: 61
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 3 AuthorsGraham D. Farquhar102
Estimated H-index: 102
More efficient wheat breeding methods are needed to meet demand for wheat from expected population growth in developing countries. This paper reports results from recent studies conducted at CIMMYT aimed at assessing the use of stomatal aperture-related traits (SATs) as indirect selection criteria for high yield-potential in bread wheat. Two classes of SATs were assessed: the instantaneous trait leaf porosity (POR), which is a close surrogate for stomatal conductance, and the integrative traits ...
Published on Jul 1, 2006in Field Crops Research3.87
Thomas R. Sinclair60
Estimated H-index: 60
(UF: University of Florida),
P.D. Jamieson1
Estimated H-index: 1
Grain number has long been considered to be a key determinant of yield in wheat crops and cultivars. In this paper, we argue that both yield and grain number are constrained by a crop's ability to gather resources. In this sense, grain numbers can be considered more as a consequence of yield than a determinant. We examine published literature on the effects of variations in development, light, nitrogen, and water supply on grain number determination and yield. We conclude that most of the variat...
Published on Feb 1, 2006in Field Crops Research3.87
Sergio F. Luque1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National University of Cordoba),
Alfredo G. Cirilo18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
María E. Otegui32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires)
Abstract Genetic gains in grain yield and related phenotypic attributes have been extensively documented in maize ( Zea mays L.), but the effect of breeding on the physiological determinants of grain yield is yet poorly understood. We determined genetic gains in grain yield and related physiological traits for seven maize hybrids developed for the central region of Argentina between 1965 and 1997. Gains were expressed as a function of the year of release (YOR). Hybrids were cropped in the field ...
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Maydica0.58
M. Tollenaar39
Estimated H-index: 39
Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield in the USA has increased by about 100 kg ha-1 year-1 or 2% year-1 from the start of large-scale adoption of hybrids by maize growers in the late 1930s until the first decade of the 21st century and about 75% of the yield improvement has been attributed to genetic gain. Yield improvement has been associated with increased stress tolerance and het- erosis, but the nature of the enhanced stress tolerance re- mains elusive and heterosis does not appear to be related t...
Published on Jan 1, 2006in Crop Science1.64
B. L. Duggan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(OSU: Oregon State University),
D. B. Fowler18
Estimated H-index: 18
(U of S: University of Saskatchewan)
Improvements in agronomic practices and cultivars have allowed for expanded production of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the Canadian prairies. In this study, yield and yield components were measured in dry land and irrigation trials to identify the factors determining yield potential and sample uniformity. Although genotype × environment interactions were important contributors to variation in the yield determining factors, genotype and position of the kernel in the spike had the major ...
Published on Jul 29, 2005in Science41.04
Motoyuki Ashikari52
Estimated H-index: 52
(Nagoya University),
Hitoshi Sakakibara69
Estimated H-index: 69
+ 7 AuthorsMakoto Matsuoka84
Estimated H-index: 84
(Nagoya University)
Most agriculturally important traits are regulated by genes known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) derived from natural allelic variations. We here show that a QTL that increases grain productivity in rice, Gn1a , is a gene for cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (OsCKX2), an enzyme that degrades the phytohormone cytokinin. Reduced expression of OsCKX2 causes cytokinin accumulation in inflorescence meristems and increases the number of reproductive organs, resulting in enhanced grain yield. QTL pyr...
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Crop Science1.64
J. C. Comstock11
Estimated H-index: 11
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
Barry Glaz18
Estimated H-index: 18
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service)
+ 5 AuthorsJ. O. Davidson3
Estimated H-index: 3
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Functional Plant Biology2.33
Fernanda G. González14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires),
Gustavo A. Slafer58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Lleida),
Daniel J. Miralles31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires)
Increasing duration of stem elongation by exposure to short photoperiod would result in higher spike dry weight at anthesis, which is positively associated with the number of fertile florets and grains in wheat. However, it is not easy to determine whether photoperiod effects on fertile florets and grains are only mediated by assimilate supply to the growing spike when spike weight variation is attained only with photoperiod treatments. The aim of this study was to determine whether photoperiod ...
Published on Jan 1, 2005in Annals of Applied Biology1.61
Matthew P. Reynolds61
Estimated H-index: 61
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
A Pellegrineschi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
B Skovmand1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Summary Yield potential can be expressed as a product of light interception, radiation use efficiency (RUE), and the partitioning of biomass to grain yield, or harvest index (HI). Traits related to early or late light interception have not been shown to be associated with genetic improvement of spring wheat yield in favourable environments. It is, however, well established that yield improvement is largely a result of increased HI, although the most recent studies comparing genetic progress in H...
Cited By127
Newest
Published on Feb 22, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Helga Ochagavía3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Lleida),
Paula Prieto3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Lleida)
+ 2 AuthorsGustavo A. Slafer58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Lleida)
Differences in time to heading that remain after photoperiod and vernalisation requirements have been saturated are classified as earliness per se (Eps) effects. It has been commonly assumed that Eps genes are purely constitutive and independent of environment, although the likely effect of temperature on Eps effects in hexaploid wheat has never been tested. We grew four near isogenic lines (NILs) for the Eps gene located in chromosome 1D (Eps-D1) at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 °C. In line with ...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in European Journal of Agronomy3.38
Heping Zhang24
Estimated H-index: 24
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation),
R. A. Richards52
Estimated H-index: 52
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 5 AuthorsAm Merry2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UTAS: University of Tasmania)
Abstract Grain number (GN) is determined by spike growth rate (SGR), fruiting efficiency (FE) and the duration of spike growth period (Ds). However, these three traits are not independent of each other and therefore quantifying their relative contribution to GN is important for improving yield potential. This study aimed to model GN as a function of SGR, FE and Ds in bread wheat and investigate the relative importance of these three traits in determining GN. A large number of commercial varietie...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Euphytica1.53
L. Gabriela Abeledo7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires),
Santiago Alvarez Prado5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires)
+ 3 AuthorsDaniel J. Miralles31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UBA: University of Buenos Aires)
Identification of secondary traits in mapping populations is usually hindered by the strong effect of anthesis time. Thus, considering the variability in time to anthesis in combination with an accurate phenotyping of mapping populations and available molecular tools is a possible way for recognising secondary traits to improve yield potential. The aim of this work was to identify secondary traits to perform indirect selection for grain yield (GY) in a bread wheat mapping population consisting o...
Published on 2019in Theoretical and Applied Genetics3.93
Guy Golan5
Estimated H-index: 5
(HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem),
Idan Ayalon1
Estimated H-index: 1
(HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
+ 5 AuthorsZvi Peleg24
Estimated H-index: 24
(HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
Key message Wild emmer allele of GNI-A1 ease competition among developing grains through the suppression of floret fertility and increase grain weight in tetraploid wheat.
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology4.19
Kirsten Paff1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UF: University of Florida),
Senthold Asseng42
Estimated H-index: 42
(UF: University of Florida)
Abstract Tef and wheat are staple grains in Ethiopia and are an important part of Ethiopian food security. The DSSAT NWheat and DSSAT Tef models were used to examine the effects of nitrogen fertilizer, planting date, and atmospheric CO 2 on tef and wheat grain yields across four locations in Ethiopia and a 30-year time period. Observed wheat yields were consistently higher than observed tef yields, but the models showed that tef could outproduce wheat in some low yielding scenarios. Wheat yields...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in European Journal of Agronomy3.38
Yuangang Zhu (SDAU: Shandong Agricultural University), Jinpeng Chu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SDAU: Shandong Agricultural University)
+ 1 AuthorsMingrong He5
Estimated H-index: 5
(SDAU: Shandong Agricultural University)
Abstract Wheat yield is linearly related to grain number per unit area, which is greatly influenced by floret fertility. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling floret fertility may be important to further increasing yields. During the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 growing seasons, Tainong 18, a widely planted winter wheat cultivar ( Triticum aestivum L.), was sown in a field on four dates (1, 8, 15, and 22 October). Responses to sowing date were investigated by examining the d...
Published on Jan 3, 2019in International Journal of Agronomy
E. Ballesteros-Rodríguez , Carlos Gustavo Martínez-Rueda2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsG. F. González (CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)
The source-sink ratio experimental manipulation has helped to define whether a crop is limited by source or sink or co-limited by both. There is no evidence in triticale of source-sink manipulations effects on yield and yield components. Two experiments were accomplished during 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Mexico, and one in 2010 at the National Institute of Agricultural Technology in Pergamino, Argentina. Two triticale cultivars (line 4 and 7) ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Molecular Breeding1.86
Weiping Shi3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Shanxi Agricultural University),
Linqi Yue (Shanxi Agricultural University)+ 7 AuthorsZHOUMei-xue37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Shanxi Agricultural University)
Kernel number per spike (KNPS) is one of the key factors affecting wheat yield, which can be significantly reduced by lower fertility or sterility of the apical and basal spikelets. In this study, the spikelet number per spike (SNPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW), KNPS, total grain numbers of the top three apical spikelets (GNAS), and total grain numbers of the bottom three basal spikelets (GNBS) of 212 wheat lines were recorded from five different environmental conditions. These 212 accessions ...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Scientific Reports4.01
Jianzhao Duan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Henan Agricultural University),
Yapeng Wu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Henan Agricultural University)
+ 6 AuthorsTiancai Guo16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Henan Agricultural University)
Wheat yield components vary between different ecological regions and yield levels. Grain number responses to pre-anthesis dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) in increasing yield were always investigated in spike organs, neglecting the effect of non-spike organ nutrition or overall distribution. This paper determined the relationships between grain number and pre-anthesis DM and N in spike and non-spike organs under different yield levels, with using two sorts of field experiments (different water-n...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Field Crops Research3.87
Ljiljana Kuzmanović5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Roberto Ruggeri3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 6 AuthorsCarla Ceoloni14
Estimated H-index: 14
Abstract Introgressions of Thinopyrum ponticum 7AgL chromosome segments, spanning 23%, 28% and 40% of the distal end of durum wheat 7AL arm, were previously shown to contain multiple beneficial gene(s)/QTL for yield-related traits, in addition to effective disease resistance ( Lr19, Sr25 ) and quality ( Yp ) genes. In the present study, durum wheat near isogenic recombinant lines (NIRLs), harbouring each of the three introgressions, were included for the first time in multi-location field trials...
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