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Implicit Theories and Their Role in Judgments and Reactions: A Word From Two Perspectives

Published on Oct 1, 1995in Psychological Inquiry10.27
· DOI :10.1207/s15327965pli0604_1
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Chi-yue Chiu48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Ying-yi Hong21
Estimated H-index: 21
Cite
Abstract
In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human actions and outcomes. We review research showing that when people believe that attributes (such as intelligence or moral character) are fixed, trait-like entities (an entity theory), they tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of these fixed traits ("I failed the test because I am dumb" or "He stole the bread because he is dishonest"). In contrast, when people believe that attributes are more dynamic, malleable, and developable (an incremental theory), they tend to focus less on broad traits and, instead, tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of more specific behavioral or psychological mediators ("I failed the test because of my effort or strategy" or "He stole the bread because he was desperate"). The two frameworks also appear to foster different r...
  • References (60)
  • Citations (1014)
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References60
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 1996
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Published on Dec 1, 1995in Child Development5.02
Karen Klein Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Columbia University),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
This article presents an expanded view of the bases of helpless reactions to failure. This view stems from recent findings of helplessness in young children. Previous formulations have stressed the attainment of invariant trait conceptions as a necessary condition for helplessness to occur and have suggested that children are relatively invulnerable to helplessness prior to this attainment. We review a series of studies documenting that key aspects of helplessness are present in preschool and ea...
Published on Jan 1, 1995in Merrill-palmer Quarterly
Kathleen M. Cain5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
Among children in fifth and higher grades, the helpless motivational pattern is associated with the idea that intelligence is a fixed entity. Cognitive concommitants of helplessness in younger children, however, are not well understood. To identify developmental relations between motivational patterns and cognitions about ability and achievement, 139 first, third, and fifth graders' beliefs about ability and achievement were assessed, as well as their motivational responses to challenging puzzle...
Published on Dec 1, 1994in Child Development5.02
Patricia A. Smiley7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Pomona College),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Smiley, Patricia A., and Dweck, Carol S. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals among Young Children. Child Development, 1994 65, 1723–1743. Developmental research has generally not found evidence of helpless responses to failure in young children; a prevailing view is that young children lack the cognitive prerequisite for helplessness. However, recent evidence suggests that even preschoolers are vulnerable to helplessness in some situations. In the present study with 4- and 5-year-olds, w...
Published on Jan 1, 1994
Nancy Cantor16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Robert E. Harlow5
Estimated H-index: 5
Published on Jan 1, 1994
Robert S. Wyer53
Estimated H-index: 53
,
Thomas Kevin Srull25
Estimated H-index: 25
Contents: Volume 1: Basic Processes. T.M. Ostrom, Foreword. J.A. Bargh, The Four Horsemen of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, and Control in Social Cognition. R.S. Wyer, Jr., D.E. Carlston, The Cognitive Representation of Persons and Events. E.R. Smith, Procedural Knowledge and Processing Strategies in Social Cognition. J.F. Kihlstrom, S.B. Klein, The Self as a Knowledge Structure. D.R. Beike, S.J. Sherman, Social Inference: Inductions, Deductions, and Analogies. F. Strack, Respon...
Published on Oct 1, 1993in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin2.60
Leonard S. Newman20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
James S. Uleman26
Estimated H-index: 26
Recent models of dispositional inference highlight the distinction between the role of traits as descriptions of or labels for behavior and their role as inferred attributes of the people emitting those behaviors. The distinction is an important one; studying the interpersonal consequences of trait inferences requires specifying what such inferences are and what they are not. How current models of person memory accommodate the distinction between behavior identifications and trait inferences is ...
Published on Oct 1, 1993in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin2.60
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Ying-yi Hong21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Chi-yue Chiu48
Estimated H-index: 48
In their research, the authors have identified individuals who believe that a particular trait (intelligence, personality, or moral character) is a fixed disposition (entity theorists) and have contrasted them with those who believe the trait to be a malleable quality (incremental theorists). Research shows that an entity theory consistently predicts (a) global dispositional inferences for self and other; even in the face of limited evidence, as well as (b) an over reliance on dispositional info...
Published on Jun 1, 1993in Child Development5.02
Cynthia A. Erdley2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Social judgment and trait ascription have long been central issues in psychology. Two studies tested the hypothesis that children who believe that personality is a fixed quality (entity theorists) would make more rigid and long-term social judgments than those who believe that personality is malleable (incremental theorists). Fourth and fifth graders (mean age 10.2 years) viewed a slide show of a boy displaying negative behaviors (Study 1—being shy, clumsy, and nervous; Study 2—lying, cheating, ...
Published on Jun 1, 1993in Educational Psychologist5.96
Susan Carey70
Estimated H-index: 70
,
Carol L. Smith17
Estimated H-index: 17
One important goal of science education is to help students understand the nature of the scientific enterprise itself. We review data from several sources, indicating that middle school and high school students have a common sense epistemology of science at variance with the constructivist epistemology we advocate as the appropriate curricular goal. We sketch the student epistemology and discuss two attempts to induce changes in it through science education.
Cited By1014
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2020in Personality and Individual Differences2.00
William Hart12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UA: University of Alabama),
Gregory K. Tortoriello4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UA: University of Alabama)
+ 1 AuthorsChristopher J. Breeden1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UA: University of Alabama)
Abstract We proposed that, following failure, narcissistic self-enhancement is designed to buffer symptoms of failure via self-serving accounts or avoidance (i.e., superficial self-enhancement) without promoting actual self-enhancement (i.e., substantive self-enhancement), whereas high-self-esteem self-enhancement is designed to promote substantive self-enhancement. A college sample (N = 232) completed measures of narcissism constructs (grandiose and vulnerable) and trait self-esteem. Next, part...
Published on Jan 1, 2020in Journal of Business Research4.03
Felix Septianto3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Auckland)
Abstract The present research studies when and how consumers might react differently to a charity showing a positive change from a negative past reputation (a ‘bad-to-good’ reputation), as compared to a charity that consistently maintains a positive reputation (an ‘always-good’ reputation). Across three studies examining the context of donating (Studies 1 and 3) and volunteering (Study 2), this research provides evidence for the moderating role of consumer mindsets (growth vs. fixed). Specifical...
Published on Nov 21, 2018in Aging & Mental Health2.96
Marleen Damman6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen),
Dikla Segel-Karpas5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Haifa),
Kène Henkens22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UvA: University of Amsterdam)
AbstractObjectives: Retirement is not only an important later-life transition for the retiring individual, but also for his or her life partner. This study aims to improve our understanding of the partner’s adjustment to the retirement of the older worker, by paying attention to the multidimensional nature of adjustment, and by examining to what extent preretirement expectations are predictive of postretirement experiences. Well-established adjustment predictors – i.e. preretirement resources an...
Published on Feb 14, 2018in Educational Policy1.96
Heather C. Hill30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Harvard University),
Charalambos Y. Charalambous18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UCY: University of Cyprus),
Mark Chin3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Harvard University)
Diverse stakeholders have an interest in understanding how teacher characteristics—their preparation and experience, knowledge, and mind-sets and habits—relate to students’ outcomes in mathematics. Past research has extensively explored this issue but often examined each characteristic in isolation. Drawing on data from roughly 300 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers, we attend to multiple teacher characteristics and find that experience, knowledge, effort invested in noninstructional activities, a...
Published on Nov 28, 2018in Journal of Business and Psychology2.58
Dejun Tony Kong10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UH: University of Houston),
Phillip M. Jolly1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Phillip M. Jolly (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)
While mindfulness (attention to and awareness of the present) has received growing attention from scholars and practitioners, little is known regarding how employees’ lay beliefs about the fixedness versus malleability nature of mindfulness can guide their work behaviors. To address this issue, we proposed the concept of implicit mindfulness theory (IMT) and developed and validated a new measure tapping this construct (with three items in the final scale). Across six studies, we found that the n...
Published on Nov 28, 2018in Journal of Social and Personal Relationships1.68
Hajin Lee (U of A: University of Alberta), Nigel Mantou Lou + 1 AuthorsSun W. Park (KU: Korea University)
People’s mindsets and goals regarding social relationships affect their relationship quality and psychological well-being. We employed multiple group path modeling to examine how perceived relational mobility affects mental and physical health through relationship mindsets (destiny and growth mindsets) and relationship goals (approach and avoidance goals) across countries, surveying community adults in the U.S. (n = 206; Mage = 39.14; 48% female) and South Korea (n = 236; Mage = 38.89; 51% femal...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Child Abuse & Neglect2.85
Güler Boyraz1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Pace University),
Alexis N. Ferguson (Pace University)+ 2 AuthorsCynthia Kassin (Pace University)
Abstract Background Traumatic events experienced in childhood, particularly those that are perpetrated by someone whom the child trusts or depends upon (i.e., high betrayal traumas [HBTs], such as abuse by a parent) can lead to long-term negative consequences, including a tendency to see oneself in a negative light, low self-compassion, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Although negative psychological consequences of HBTs are well-documented in the literature, little is known surrounding the pr...
Tashana S. Samuel (CUNY: City University of New York), Jared Warner (CUNY: City University of New York)
ABSTRACTMath anxiety is a debilitating problem that affects many community college students. Neuropsychological research suggests that negative rumination when anticipating math situations substant...
Published on Sep 13, 2019in Cornell Hospitality Quarterly2.49
Bing Han (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University), Liangyan Wang (SJTU: Shanghai Jiao Tong University), Xiang (Robert) Li (TU: Temple University)
Published on Sep 13, 2019in Applied Developmental Science1.84
Kaylin Ratner3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Cornell University),
Anthony L. Burrow14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsPatrick L. Hill26
Estimated H-index: 26
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
View next paperClarifying Achievement Goals and Their Impact.