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Basic Inferences of Scientific Reasoning, Argumentation, and Discovery.

Published on Jan 1, 2009in Science Education 2.90
· DOI :10.1002/sce.20357
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
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Abstract
Helping students better understand how scientists reason and argue to draw scientific conclusions has long been viewed as a critical component of scientific literacy, thus remains a central goal of science instruction. However, differences of opinion persist regarding the nature of scientific reasoning, argumentation, and discovery. Accordingly, the primary goal of this paper is to employ the inferences of abduction, retroduction, deduction, and induction to introduce a pattern of scientific reasoning, argumentation, and discovery that is postulated to be universal, thus can serve as an instructional framework to improve student reasoning and argumentative skills. The paper first analyzes three varied and presumably representative case histories in terms of the four inferences (i.e., Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons, Rosemary and Peter Grants' research on Darwin's finches, and Marshall Nirenberg's Nobel Prize–winning research on genetic coding). Each case history reveals a pattern of reasoning and argumentation used during explanation testing that can be summarized in an If/then/Therefore form. The paper then summarizes additional cases also exemplary of the form. Implications of the resulting theory are discussed in terms of improving the quality of research and classroom instruction. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sci Ed94:336–364, 2010
  • References (45)
  • Citations (58)
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References45
Newest
Published on Sep 17, 2009
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
Part I. The Nature of Science 1. Educational Goals and The Nature of Science Inquiry Exploring Instructional Alternatives The Goals of American Education How Science Is Practiced Testing Hypothesis Using Experiments Basic and Applied Research 2. The Nature of Scientific Theories The Greek Four-Material Theory The "Discovery" of Oxygen Description Versus Explanation: Why Do Objects Fall? Proof and Disproof The Elements of Scientific Discovery How Do Science and Religion Differ? Part II. Student T...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Science Education 2.90
Leema K. Berland12
Estimated H-index: 12
(NU: Northwestern University),
Brian J. Reiser34
Estimated H-index: 34
(NU: Northwestern University)
Constructing scientific explanations and participating in argumentative discourse are seen as essential practices of scientific inquiry (e.g., R. Driver, P. Newton, & J. Osborne, 2000). In this paper, we identify three goals of engaging in these related scientific practices: (1) sensemaking, (2) articulating, and (3) persuading. We propose using these goals to understand student engagement with these practices, and to design instructional interventions to support students. Thus, we use this fram...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in Science Education 2.90
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Allchin (2006) has misinterpreted a classic case of hypothetico-deductive (HD) science in terms of his preferred ‘let’s-gather-some-data-and-see-what-emerges’ view. The misrepresentation concerns the research program of Peter and Rosemary Grant on Darwin’s finches. The present essay argues that the Grants’ research is HD in nature and includes a statement by Peter Grant to that effect.
Published on Jan 1, 2009in World Futures
Farzad Mahootian1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Timothy E. Eastman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Silver Spring Networks)
The 20th century philosophy of science began on a positivistic note. Its focal point was scientific explanation and the hypothetico-deductive (HD) framework of explanation was proposed as the standard of what is meant by “science.” HD framework, its inductive and statistical variants, and other logic-based approaches to modeling scientific explanation were developed long before the dawn of the information age. Since that time, the volume of observational data and power of high performance comput...
Michael Oehrtman5
Estimated H-index: 5
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Disagreements exist among textbook authors, curriculum developers, and even among science and mathematics educators/researchers regarding the meanings and roles of several key nature-of-science (NOS) and nature-of-mathematics (NOM) terms such as proof, disproof, hypotheses, predictions, theories, laws, conjectures, axioms, theorems, and postulates. To assess the extent to which these disagreements may exist among high school science and mathematics teachers, a 14-item survey of the meanings and ...
Published on May 1, 2008in Science Education 2.90
Victor Sampson19
Estimated H-index: 19
(FSU: Florida State University),
Douglas B. Clark13
Estimated H-index: 13
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Theoretical and empirical research on argument and argumentation in science education has intensified over the last two decades. The term “argument” in this review refers to the artifacts that a student or a group of students create when asked to articulate and justify claims or explanations whereas the term “argumentation” refers to the process of constructing these artifacts. The intent of this review is to provide an overview of several analytic frameworks that science educators use to assess...
Published on Jan 1, 2008in Annual Review of Psychology 19.75
Jonathan St. B. T. Evans46
Estimated H-index: 46
(PSU: Plymouth State University)
This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process ac...
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Walter Isaacson7
Estimated H-index: 7
By the author of the acclaimed bestseller 'Benjamin Franklin', this is the first full biography of Albert Einstein since all of his papers have become available. How did his mind work? What made him a genius? Isaacson's biography shows how his scientific imagination sprang from the rebellious nature of his personality. His fascinating story is a testament to the connection between creativity and freedom. Based on newly released personal letters of Einstein, this book explores how an imaginative,...
Published on May 1, 2006in Science Education 2.90
Ala Samarapungavan17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Purdue University),
Erik L. Westby1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University),
George M. Bodner34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Purdue University)
This study investigated the ways in which beliefs about the nature of the science vary as a function of an individual's chemistry expertise and chemistry research ex- perience across the range from high-schools students, whose exposure to chemistry occurs in the classroom, to practicing research chemists. Interviews conducted with a total of 91 participants probed three key research questions: Do the participants' epistemic beliefs vary as a function of chemistry expertise? Are there discipline-...
Published on Mar 1, 2006in Science Education 2.90
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Cited By58
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 2018 in ICEED (IEEE International Conference Engineering Education)
Corrienna Abdul Talib1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UTM: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia),
Shamimi Thanga Rajan (UTM: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)+ 3 AuthorsMarlina Ali2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UTM: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
Knowledge can be conveyed to younger generations through education. The education system must deliver world class excellence to produce proficient learners. Through Education many skills can be cultivated to learners. One of the skills needed to be nurtured for learners is scientific reasoning skill. Scientific reasoning skill aids learners to comprehend the concept of science deeper and meaningful. Scientific reasoning skill can be developed in individuals along their age. Students’ performance...
Published on Sep 1, 2018
Hanna Grimm , Christin Robisch , Kornelia Möller9
Estimated H-index: 9
Das Testen von Hypothesen als zentrale Komponente eines inquiry-orientierten Unterrichts erfordert schlussfolgerndes Denken, das fur viele Kinder ohne gezieltes Scaffolding eine nur schwer zu bewaltigende Herausforderung darstellt. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde zur Forderung des hypothesenbezogenen Schlussfolgerns forschungsbasiert ein Unterricht unter Berucksichtigung des Konzepts des Scaffoldings entwickelt. In einer quasi-experimentellen Studie mit drei Messzeitpunkten (N = 115 Drittklassl...
Published on May 1, 2018in Social Science & Medicine 3.09
Massimiliano Agovino10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Naples Federico II),
Maria Carmela Aprile3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Naples Federico II)
+ 1 AuthorsAngela Mariani8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Naples Federico II)
Abstract The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial ec...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in CBE- Life Sciences Education 2.38
Jason E. Dowd3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Duke University),
Robert J. Thomas35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Duke University)
+ 1 AuthorsJulie A. Reynolds8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Duke University)
Published on Mar 1, 2018in American Biology Teacher 0.28
Russell C. Wyeth9
Estimated H-index: 9
(St. Francis Xavier University),
Marjorie J. Wonham1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre)
Abstract The scientific method is a core element of all science. Yet, its different implementations are remarkably diverse, based on the varied concepts and protocols required in each specific instance of science. For experienced scientists, coping with this diversity is second nature: they readily and continually ask tractable questions even outside their expertise, and find the process of forming hypotheses, designing tests, and interpreting results fairly transparent. At the secondary school ...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
Fang-Ying Yang13
Estimated H-index: 13
(NTNU: National Taiwan Normal University)
The main goal of this study was to investigate how readers’ visual attention distribution during reading of conflicting science information is related to their scientific reasoning behavior. A total of 25 university students voluntarily participated in the study. They were given conflicting science information about earthquake predictions to read while their eye movements during reading were recorded by the FaceLAB eye tracking system. After reading, the participants were interviewed to probe th...
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Science Education 2.90
Maria Develaki3
Estimated H-index: 3
(NCSE: National Center for Science Education)
Scientific reasoning is particularly pertinent to science education since it is closely related to the content and methodologies of science and contributes to scientific literacy. Much of the research in science education investigates the appropriate framework and teaching methods and tools needed to promote students’ ability to reason and evaluate in a scientific way. This paper aims (a) to contribute to an extended understanding of the nature and pedagogical importance of model-based reasoning...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Educação e Pesquisa
Márcia Gorette Lima da Silva1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UFRN: Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte),
Conxita Márquez Bargalló9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Autonomous University of Barcelona),
Begonya Oliveras Prat1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Autonomous University of Barcelona)
En esta investigacion se presentan las dificultades que muestran futuros profesores de quimica de secundaria de una universidad brasilena en analizar criticamente un articulo de prensa con contenido cientifico. Con esta finalidad se diseno una actividad de lectura critica, a partir de una noticia de prensa que hablaba del uso de un producto de limpieza domestica muy comun como producto de belleza. El articulo fue seleccionado con el objetivo que los participantes pudieran aplicar sus conocimient...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Science Education 2.90
Heather King6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Marianne Achiam4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCPH: University of Copenhagen)
Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017
Brian R. Belland18
Estimated H-index: 18
(USU: Utah State University)
In this chapter, I describe the intended learning outcomes of scaffolding—content knowledge and higher-order thinking abilities—and link these to the goals advanced by the Next Generation Science Standards and related documents from recent curricular revisions in STEM education. Furthermore, I address different ways in which scaffolding’s effect can be measured (assessment level), and explore whether there are differences in the magnitude of scaffolding’s effect according to assessment level. Me...