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Preschool environment and temperament as predictors of social and nonsocial anxiety disorders in middle adolescence.

Published on Mar 1, 2014in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry6.39
· DOI :10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.014
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
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Abstract
Objective Of the few risk factors identified for the development of anxiety disorders, behavioral inhibition has received the strongest support. However, studies examining prediction of anxiety disorder from inhibition over time have not been extensive, and very few have assessed the impact of inhibition assessed early in life on anxiety in adolescence. Method The current study assessed 3 risk factors among 91 children when they were approximately 4 years of age, and determined anxiety diagnoses when the children were in midadolescence (mean age, 15 years). Children were included in the study at preschool age if they scored high (n = 57) or low (n = 34) on behavioral inhibition. Maternal anxiousness and maternal attitudes toward the child were assessed at the same time. Diagnoses at age 15 years were categorized as social anxiety disorder or other anxiety disorders. Results Social anxiety disorder at age 15 years was predicted by both inhibition and maternal anxiousness at age 4 years, whereas other anxiety disorders were predicted only by maternal anxiousness. Almost 37% of inhibited preschool-aged children demonstrated social anxiety disorder at age 15, compared with 15% of uninhibited children. Conclusions The results support a growing body of research pointing to the importance of behavioral inhibition as a risk for social anxiety well into adolescence, and also highlight maternal anxiousness as a more general risk across anxiety disorders.
  • References (48)
  • Citations (21)
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References48
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry6.13
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Macquarie University)
Background: There are few evaluations of very early intervention for the prevention of internalising disorders and those that exist generally evaluate outcomes to a maximum of 12 months. The current study evaluated the very long term effects (11 years) of a brief internalising prevention program presented to parents of preschool aged children. Methods: The original sample comprised 146 preschool-aged children who scored high on measures of inhibited temperament. Half of the parents were given a ...
Jacqueline A. Clauss9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University),
Jennifer Urbano Blackford25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
Objective Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with increased risk for developing social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, the degree of risk associated with BI has yet to be systematically examined and quantified. The goal of the present study was to quantify the association between childhood BI and risk for developing SAD. Method A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies that assessed both BI and SAD. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratio (O...
Published on Aug 8, 2012in PLOS ONE2.78
Jennifer L. Hudson37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Macquarie University),
Helen F. Dodd12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UEA: University of East Anglia)
Background: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. Method: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited) aged 3–4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disorders Int...
Jennifer L. Hudson37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Macquarie University),
Helen F. Dodd12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Macquarie University)
+ 1 AuthorsNataly Bovopoulous1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Macquarie University)
Objective Behavioral inhibition (BI) in early childhood is associated with increased risk for anxiety. The present research examines BI alongside family environment factors, specifically maternal negativity and overinvolvement, maternal anxiety, and mother–child attachment, with a view to providing a broader understanding of the development of child anxiety. Method Participants were 202 children classified at age 4 years as either behaviorally inhibited (N = 102) or behaviorally uninhibited (N =...
Published on Dec 1, 2010in American Journal of Psychiatry13.65
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
,
Susan J. Kennedy7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 2 AuthorsLynne Sweeney2
Estimated H-index: 2
Objective:Increasing evidence for the importance of several risk factors for anxiety disorders is beginning to point to the possibility of prevention. Early interventions targeting known risk for anxiety have rarely been evaluated. The authors evaluated the medium-term (3-year) effects of a parent-focused intervention for anxiety in inhibited preschool-age children. Method:The study was a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention program provided to parents compared with a monitoring-o...
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Macquarie University),
Robert J. Coplan37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Carleton University)
Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines evidence for the overlap and distinction between these constructs. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn from the extant literature, the bulk of the evi...
Heidi Gazelle14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UNCG: University of North Carolina at Greensboro),
Kenneth H. Rubin77
Estimated H-index: 77
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
In this introductory chapter, guided by developmental psychopathology and developmental science as overarching integrative theoretical frameworks, the authors define three constructs related to social anxiety in childhood (behavioral inhibition, anxious solitude/withdrawal, and social anxiety disorder) and analyze commonalities and differences in the content and assessment of these constructs. They then highlight controversies between developmental and clinical approaches to the definition of th...
Published on Apr 1, 2010in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry6.13
Kathryn A. Degnan24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
Alisa N. Almas10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park),
Nathan A. Fox81
Estimated H-index: 81
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Anxiety disorders are prevalent throughout childhood and adolescence. As such, identifying the factors and mechanisms that precede, maintain, or exacerbate anxiety disorders is essential for the development of empirically-based prevention and intervention programs. The current review focuses on child temperament (i.e., behavioral inhibition) and the child’s environment, including parenting, child care, and peer relationships, as these factors have been linked to internalizing problems and anxiet...
Published on Mar 1, 2010in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry6.13
Susan L. Edwards7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Macquarie University),
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Macquarie University),
Susan J. Kennedy7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Macquarie University)
Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were selected to assess several risk factors derived from current theory, including parental negative affectivity, child inhibition, parent overprotection, ...
Natoshia Raishevich3
Estimated H-index: 3
(VT: Virginia Tech),
Susan J. Kennedy7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Macquarie University),
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Macquarie University)
In the current study, the Five Minute Speech Sample was used to assess the association between parent attitudes and children's behavioral inhibition in mothers of 120 behaviorally inhibited (BI) and 37 behaviorally uninhibited preschool-aged children. Mothers of BI children demonstrated significantly higher levels of emotional over-involvement (EOI) and self-sacrificing/overprotective behavior (SS/OP). However, there was no significant relationship between inhibition status and maternal criticis...
Cited By21
Newest
Published on 2019in Depression and Anxiety4.93
Eran S. Auday2
Estimated H-index: 2
(GHS: Geisinger Health System),
Koraly Pérez-Edgar30
Estimated H-index: 30
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University)
Published on Jul 1, 2019in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology1.83
Anke W. Blote-Aanhane18
Estimated H-index: 18
(LEI: Leiden University),
Anne C. Miers15
Estimated H-index: 15
(LEI: Leiden University)
+ 1 AuthorsP. Michiel Westenberg26
Estimated H-index: 26
(LEI: Leiden University)
Abstract This three-wave longitudinal study spanning five years evaluated the mediating roles of negative social self-perception and social interpretation bias in the link between adolescent shyness and social anxiety. Participants were 331 (pre-)adolescents aged 9 to 17 years old at Wave 1, with data from 261 participants available for the main analyses. The study used a parent-reported measure of shyness. Social anxiety and the mediator variables were self-reported. Results showed that shyness...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in EClinicalMedicine
Leonardo F. Fontenelle31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Monash University),
Murat Yücel74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Monash University)
Abstract Recent changes to the diagnostic classification of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), including its removal from the anxiety/neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders chapters of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11), are based on growing evidence of unique pathogenic signatures and linked diagnostic and treatment approaches. In this review, we build on these recent d...
Sara J. Bufferd16
Estimated H-index: 16
(CSUSM: California State University San Marcos),
Lea R. Dougherty23
Estimated H-index: 23
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
+ 3 AuthorsDaniel N. Klein72
Estimated H-index: 72
(SBU: Stony Brook University)
Up to 20% of preschool-age children meet criteria for anxiety disorders and, for a large subset, anxiety appears to persist throughout early childhood. However, little is known about which factors predict persistence/recurrence of anxiety in young children. Temperament, including behavioral inhibition (BI), negative emotionality (NE), and positive emotionality (PE), predict the onset of anxiety disorders, but to our knowledge no study has examined whether temperament predicts the course of anxie...
Patrizia D. Hofer2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Basel),
Karina Wahl13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Basel)
+ 4 AuthorsRoselind Lieb11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Basel)
Abstract The role of behavioral inhibition (BI), parental rearing, and adverse life events in the development of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is unresolved. We prospectively examined whether BI and perceived parental rearing predicted the subsequent first onset of OCD and whether BI moderated the association between perceived parental rearing/adverse life events and the first onset of OCD. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal study among community adolescents and young adults (aged 1...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Child Psychiatry & Human Development2.07
Riikka Korja13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Macquarie University),
Saara Nolvi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UTU: University of Turku)
+ 1 AuthorsCatherine M. McMahon24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Macquarie University)
In the present review, we examine the association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety and children’s early negative reactivity or self-regulation. The review includes 32 studies that focus on pregnancy-related anxiety, state or trait anxiety, perceived stress, and stressful life events in relation to child’s crying, temperament, or behavior during the first 2 years of life. We searched four electronic databases and 32 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three st...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders2.79
Jessica F. Scherr2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Abigail L. Hogan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 1 AuthorsJane E. Roberts9
Estimated H-index: 9
(USC: University of South Carolina)
This study investigated behavioral indicators of social fear in preschool boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with a low degree of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms (FXS-Low; n = 29), FXS with elevated ASD symptoms (FXS-High; n = 25), idiopathic ASD (iASD; n = 11), and typical development (TD; n = 36). Gaze avoidance, escape behaviors, and facial fear during a stranger approach were coded. Boys with elevated ASD symptoms displayed more avoidant gaze, looking less at the stranger and parent ...
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders2.79
Bridgette L. Tonnsen9
Estimated H-index: 9
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Jessica F. Scherr2
Estimated H-index: 2
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 1 AuthorsJane E. Roberts9
Estimated H-index: 9
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Studying anxiety in neurogenetic syndromes may inform the intersection of biological and developmental risks, facilitating effective and targeted interventions. We longitudinally examined stranger fear in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 46) and typical controls (n = 33), as well as associations between observed stranger fear and rating scales of anxiety, withdrawal and autism features within FXS. Results indicated atypical facial fear in FXS, although facial fear did not i...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Journal of Anxiety Disorders3.47
Elizabeth X. Lau2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Macquarie University),
Ronald M. Rapee75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Macquarie University),
Robert J. Coplan37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Carleton University)
Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Methods Seventy-two children aged 3–5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurre...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Child and Adolescent Mental Health1.44
Peter J. Lawrence4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Reading),
Sally M. Rooke1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Southampton),
Cathy Creswell24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Reading)
Background Anxiety disorders are common, often start in childhood and run a chronic course. As such there is a need for effective prevention. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials to prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in ‘at risk’ young people. Diagnostic and symptom outcomes were examined. Putative moderators were tested as was publication bias. Results We included 16 trials (2545 young people). Two trials reported diagnostic outcomes, a...
View next paperStable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence.