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The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

Published on Dec 1, 1982in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
· DOI :10.1002/tea.3660190904
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
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Abstract
Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities. Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to date they lack clear answers, yet clear answers are necessary if we hope to design effective instruction in reasoning.
  • References (42)
  • Citations (69)
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References42
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 1982in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
Marcia C. Linn60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of California, Berkeley)
Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called “practical” factors in reasoning. Practical factors are fa...
39 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1981in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
David Moshman17
Estimated H-index: 17
(NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln),
Pat Thompson2
Estimated H-index: 2
(NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)
Six sequences in the development of hypothesis-testing conceptions are proposed, involving (a) interpretation of the hypothesis; (b) the distinction between using theories and testing theories; (c) the consideration of multiple possibilities; (d) the relation of theory and data; (e) the nature of verification and falsification; and (f) the relation of truth and falsity. An alternative account is then provided involving three global stages: concrete operations, formal operations, and a postformal...
18 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1980in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
Livingston S. Schneider1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lawrence Hall of Science),
John W. Renner22
Estimated H-index: 22
(OU: University of Oklahoma)
75 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1980in British Journal of Psychology 3.31
J. St B. T. Evans15
Estimated H-index: 15
Recent studies of deductive reasoning are reviewed with respect to three questions: (i) Do people reason logically? (ii) Is reasoning introspectible? (iii) Is reasoning sequential? It is argued that the evidence of reasoning experiments suggests a negative answer to all three questions. This conclusion is interesting, since the last two questions at least might be answered affirmatively by common sense, and affirmative answers would be more consistent with the assumptions of many psychologists i...
59 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1980in Science Education 2.90
Trevor G. Bond16
Estimated H-index: 16
Lawson (1 979) addresses two questions of considerable importance to science educators and Piagetian psychologists. They are: is there evidence to support the contention that a unified, structured whole of operations underlies the formal operational schemata of combining variables, controlling variables, and proportions and, if
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1979in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.13
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
29 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1979in British Journal of Psychology 3.31
K. I. Manktelow4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
J. St B. T. Evans15
Estimated H-index: 15
A series of five experiments was performed comparing abstract and thematic materials in Wason's (1966) selection task. The first was designed to test the effect of negated rule components on the facilitated performance usually found with thematic rules. No such facilitation transpired, however, and the succeeding four experiments investigated possible variables which could account for this result. None of the experiments showed any facilitation of performance on thematic rules and the pattern of...
188 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 1979in Perceptual and Motor Skills 1.05
Anton E. Lawson41
Estimated H-index: 41
(ASU: Arizona State University)
50 ninth grade students who ranged widely in language ability responded to 10 group-administered pencil-paper items requiring various components of formal reasoning (isolation and control of variables, proportional reasoning, combinatorial reasoning). Responses on the 10 items were scored as correct or incorrect. Summed scores were obtained for the three components of formal reasoning. Correlation coefficients among the 10 items ranged widely (.18 to .65) but were all substantial among the summe...
17 Citations Source Cite
Cited By69
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Published on Dec 1, 2018in Evolution: Education and Outreach
Katie F. Manwaring2
Estimated H-index: 2
(BYU: Brigham Young University),
Jamie L. Jensen6
Estimated H-index: 6
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
+ 3 AuthorsSeth M. Bybee15
Estimated H-index: 15
(BYU: Brigham Young University)
Acceptance of evolutionary theory varies widely and is often associated with religious background. Some have suggested there exists an additional relationship between scientific reasoning ability and the acceptance of evolutionary theory. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to test whether scientific reasoning ability predicts religiosity, acceptance of creationist views, or acceptance of evolution. We administered internet-based surveys to 724 individuals nationwide who self-des...
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Published on Jan 1, 2018
Erin E. Peters-Burton7
Estimated H-index: 7
(GMU: George Mason University)
Learning about the nature of science is a crucial part of being a scientifically literate citizen in the modern age. This paper examines parallels between nature of science instruction and the processes explained by self-regulated learning theory, with a particular emphasis on the extension of effective strategies for learners which can be enhanced by the use of self-regulated learning cycles in classrooms. Explicit and reflective approaches to teaching the nature of science are examined and ana...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2017
J. C. Moore8
Estimated H-index: 8
(CCU: Coastal Carolina University),
Josip Slisko
Visualization is a common and important step in expert-like problem solving across multiple disciplines. Within the context of physics education, significant intervention is often required to develop visualization skills with novice problem solvers. In particular, dynamic multi-body problems require mental models that incorporate multiple objects time-varying in space, which may require significant development of spatial and/or other cognitive abilities. We have investigated student abilities in...
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The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers’ views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science education at an education faculty in Turkey. In this study, in which quantitative and qualitative research methods are used, non-equivalent control group d...
1 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2016
This thesis investigated how a year-4 teacher used a pedagogical approach referred to as the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) model of instruction for teaching Science Inquiry Skills in a primary classroom. Through scaffolding her students' learning using the GRR, the teacher guided her students towards developing an understanding about Scientific Inquiry leading to the foundations of scientific literacy. A learning environment was established in which students engaged in rich conversatio...
Published on Oct 14, 2015
Ertan Çetinkaya , Halil Turgut3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Mehmet Kürşad Duru (Marmara University)
The current study investigating the effect of a process planned in the context of science and pseudoscience demarcation on the development of science perception of secondary school students was designed upon an iridology case. In the process of the research, iridology was first presented to the students, sample applications were made and discussed in the class in general sense. Following that, the case was taken in detail with the small groups formed in the class and ended with the reports of gr...
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Published on Oct 1, 2015in Science Education 2.90
Erin E. Peters-Burton7
Estimated H-index: 7
(GMU: George Mason University)
The purpose of this study was to describe connections among students’ views of nature of science in relation to the goals of a curriculum delivered in a unique setting, one where a researcher and two teachers collaborated to develop a course devoted to teaching students about how knowledge is built in science. Students proceeded through a cycle of self-regulated phases, forethought, performance, and self-reflection, during each segment of the curriculum: (a) independent research, (b) knowledge b...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2015
University of Minnesota Ph.D. dissertation. February 2015. Major: Education, Curriculum and Instruction. Advisor: Frances P. Lawrenz. 1 computer file (PDF); ix, 232 pages, appendices A-I.
Published on Feb 11, 2014in International Journal of Science Education 1.25
Nader Wahbeh2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Fouad Abd-El-Khalick32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
This study (a) assessed the influence of an integrated nature of science (NOS) instructional intervention on inservice secondary science teachers' understandings, retention of those understandings, and their NOS instructional planning and practices; and (b) examined factors that mediated the translation of teachers' NOS understandings into practice. Nineteen teachers participated in an intensive, 6-week NOS course, which concluded with teachers developing plans to address NOS in their classrooms...
25 Citations Source Cite