The nature of advanced reasoning and science instruction

Published on Dec 1, 1982in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
· DOI :10.1002/tea.3660190904
Anton E. Lawson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Arizona State University)
Abstract
Although the development of reasoning is recognized as an important goal of science instruction, its nature remains somewhat of a mystery. This article discusses two key questions: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? Aspects of a model of advanced reasoning are presented in which hypothesis generation and testing are viewed as central processes in intellectual development. It is argued that a number of important advanced reasoning schemata are linked by these processes and should be made a part of science instruction designed to improve students' reasoning abilities. Concerning students' development and use of formal reasoning, Linn (1982) calls for research into practical issues such as the roles of task-specific knowledge and individual differences in performance, roles not emphasized by Piaget in his theory and research. From a science teacher's point of view, this is good advice. Accordingly, this article will expand upon some of the issues raised by Linn in a discussion of the nature of advanced reasoning which attempts to reconcile the apparent contradiction between students' differential use of advanced reasoning schemata in varying contexts with the notion of a general stage of formal thought. Two key questions will be discussed: Does formal thought constitute a structured whole? And what role does propositional logic play in advanced reasoning? The underlying assumption of the present discussion is that, among other things, science instruction should concern itself with the improvement of students' reasoning abilities (cf. Arons, 1976; Arons & Karplus, 1976; Bady, 1979; Bauman, 1976; Educational Policies Commission, 1966; Herron, 1978; Karplus, 1979; Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972; Moshman & Thompson, 1981; Lawson, 1979; Levine & linn, 1977; Pallrand, 1977; Renner & Lawson, 1973; Sayre & Ball, 1975; Schneider & Renner, 1980; Wollman, 1978). The questions are of interest because to date they lack clear answers, yet clear answers are necessary if we hope to design effective instruction in reasoning.
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  • Citations (69)
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References41
Published on Dec 1, 1972in Harvard Educational Review 2.63
Lawrence Kohlberg34
Estimated H-index: 34
,
Rochelle Mayer2
Estimated H-index: 2
The authors offer an explanation of the psychological and philosophical positions underlying aspects of educational progressivism. They contrast tenets of progressivism, most clearly identified with the work of John Dewey, with two other educational ideologies, the romantic and the cultural transmission conceptions, which historically have competed in the minds of educators as rationales for the choice of educational goals and practices. Kohlberg and Mayer maintain that only progressivism, with ...
464 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1978in Psychological Review 7.23
Martin D. S. Braine18
Estimated H-index: 18
(York University)
465 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1978in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
Anton E. Lawson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Arizona State University),
Robert Karplus22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of California, Berkeley),
Helen Adi6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Northern Illinois University)
83 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 1982in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
Marcia C. Linn56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of California, Berkeley)
Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called “practical” factors in reasoning. Practical factors are fa...
39 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1950in The Philosophical Review
Max Black21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Alice Ambrose4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Morris Lazerowitz4
Estimated H-index: 4
10 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1970in School Science and Mathematics
Elizabeth F. Karplus5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of California, Berkeley),
Robert Karplus22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of California, Berkeley)
48 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1973in Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3.25
Robert J. Ross2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Mississippi State University)
Sixty-five undergraduates were tested on five formal thinking tasks and the verbal and figural sections of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The percentage of students operating at the formal level for three of the four ordinally scored formal problems was significantly above the 50% figure usually reported with a more intellectually representative sample of adolescents. It was suggested that the norms developed by Piaget for formal tasks were more suitable for a cognitively superior popu...
20 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1976in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
Anton E. Lawson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of California, Berkeley),
Floyd H. Nordland10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Purdue University)
32 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1977in The Journal of Psychology 1.52
Anton E. Lawson40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of California, Berkeley)
Summary Twenty-eight male and female seventh grade students who ranged widely in mathematical ability were administered three formal operations tasks in individual interviews (chemical combinations, bending rods, balance beam). Objective notes on task performances were made during the interviews and later categorized into Piagetian concrete and formal levels of intellectual development by two independent raters. Responses on each task ranged from early concrete to fully formal operational. Corre...
17 Citations Source Cite
Cited By69
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Science Education 3.04
Erin E. Peters-Burton7
Estimated H-index: 7
(George Mason University)
The purpose of this study was to describe connections among students’ views of nature of science in relation to the goals of a curriculum delivered in a unique setting, one where a researcher and two teachers collaborated to develop a course devoted to teaching students about how knowledge is built in science. Students proceeded through a cycle of self-regulated phases, forethought, performance, and self-reflection, during each segment of the curriculum: (a) independent research, (b) knowledge b...
3 Citations Source Cite
Hector N. Torres2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Dana L. Zeidler24
Estimated H-index: 24
The purpose of this paper was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The authors suggest that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The result...
28 Citations
The purpose of the study is to explore the factors that mediate preservice science teachers’(PSTs) understanding of nature of science (NOS). This study was conducted during the LaboratoryApplication in Science II course and totally 50 PSTs joined the study voluntarily. The laboratory coursewas designed under the inquiry-based instruction. The design of the study was qualitative and exploratoryin nature. During the semester, reflection papers were collected to understand PSTs’ experiences with th...
Source Cite
José Antonio5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Acevedo Díaz4
Estimated H-index: 4
En este articulo se analizan los principales enfoques usados en la educacion cientifica para la ensenanza de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Dos enfoques generales pueden ser considerados: implicito y explicito-reflexivo. Se valora la eficacia relativa de ambos enfoques a partir de los resultados obtenidos de su puesta en practica en la ensenanza de las ciencias, y se presta atencion a los supuestos inherentes que subyacen en los mismos. El enfoque explicito-reflexivo se ha mostrado mas eficaz que ...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Science Education 3.04
Sharon Bailin5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Simon Fraser University)
It is widely held that developing critical thinking is one of the goals of science education. Although there is much valuable work in the area, the field lacks a coherent and defensible conception of critical thinking. As a result, many efforts to foster critical thinking in science rest on miscon- ceptions about the nature of critical thinking. This paper examines some of the misconceptions, in particular the characterization of critical thinking in terms of processes or skills and the separati...
148 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1992in Research in Science & Technological Education 0.51
Judith Bransky2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Haifa),
Rina Hadass4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Haifa),
Aviva Lubezky1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Haifa)
12 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1989in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 3.21
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Universidad de Oriente)
It has been suggested that proportional reasoning tasks contain field effects. Field-dependent students are considered to be highly influenced by the structure of the perceptual field and lack an articulated conceptual framework. To test the hypothesis that there is a significant correlation between field independence and proportional reasoning tasks, a sample of science students were tested to determine performance in proportional reasoning and degree of field independence. It was found that ev...
25 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1989in International Journal of Science Education 1.32
C. dell'Aquila‡1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Bari),
M. di Gennaro1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Bari)
+ 1 AuthorsR. Stella3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Bari)
We report a systematic investigation into the relationship between proportional logic and typical Piagetian formal schemata (control of variables, and proportions) for a group of students in the informatics department of a university. The analysis of results suggests that a unitary structure exists in the mastery of hypothesis testing logic, standard proportional logic and formal schemata.
1 Citations Source Cite