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Analysis and Design of Furrow Irrigation Systems

Published on Jun 1, 2001in Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-asce1.34
· DOI :10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2001)127:3(161)
D. Zerihun7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UA: University of Arizona),
Charles A Sanchez24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UA: University of Arizona),
Kathryn L Farrell-Poe4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UA: University of Arizona)
Abstract
Application efficiency is the primary criterion for furrow irrigation system design and management. In this study, the application efficiency function of a furrow irrigation system is analyzed. The application efficiency function is unimodal with respect to inlet flow rate and furrow length. Optimality conditions are derived for the cases in which application efficiency is a function of either furrow length or flow rate. Simple and sufficiently accurate equations and design and management rules are developed.
  • References (26)
  • Citations (6)
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References26
Newest
#1D. ZerihunH-Index: 4
#2Jan FeyenH-Index: 48
Last. Zhi WangH-Index: 17
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The furrow irrigation system design problem is cast in an optimization setting. A structured problem formulation and a pre-solution analysis procedure is presented. The application of the proposed approach in the detection and removal of constraint redundancy and inconsistency, as well as complications related to scale problems is demonstrated. Key solution features, such as solution existence and (non)uniqueness, constraint activity at the optimum, as well as properties of monotonocity of the f...
4 CitationsSource
#1Albert J. Clemmens (ARS: Agricultural Research Service)H-Index: 24
This paper describes a new procedure for the design of level-basin irrigation systems which is based on the irrigator's cutoff criteria. Design with this procedure, hopefully, will be more transferable to users and will allow basin designs to be adopted to local practices. Comparisons are made to existing design procedures, and it is shown that many of them can be expressed in terms of this new procedure, available in the form of a computer program. A sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the...
8 CitationsSource
By appropriate choice of reference variables, dimensionless governing equations and initial and boundary conditions of unsteady canal flow have fewer independent parameters than do their dimensioned counterparts; the same information can be expressed more compactly. With design discharge and normal depth as references, unsteady flow is governed by cross-sectional shape factors, Froude number at normal depth, and the dimensionless length, as well as initial and boundary conditions. A particular d...
9 CitationsSource
Evaluation of actual irrigation system performance should rely on an accurate hydrologic water balance over the area considered. In a companion paper, water uses are categorized as consumptive or nonconsumptive, and beneficial or nonbeneficial. Real performance is based on water uses over a specified period of time, rather than observation of a single irrigation event (with associate potential, but not yet actual, consumptive and/or beneficial uses). Once the components in the water balance have...
41 CitationsSource
For most irrigation systems, the most practical method for determining the global distribution uniformity (i.e., that experienced by the entire crop) is to measure the uniformity resulting from several components and combine them statistically. In this paper, procedures and equations are presented for determining global distribution uniformity from several components. Distribution uniformity is defined in terms of extreme values in the distribution, representing some fraction of the field area (...
31 CitationsSource
It is essential to standardize the definitions and approaches to quantifying various irrigation performance measures. The ASCE Task Committee on Defining Irrigation Efficiency and Uniformity provides a comprehensive examination of various performance indices such as irrigation efficiency, application efficiency, irrigation sagacity, distribution uniformity, and others. Consistency is provided among different irrigation methods and different scales. Clarification of common points of confusion is ...
411 CitationsSource
#1D. Zerihun (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 4
#2Zhi Wang (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 17
Last. J Mohanreddy (UW: University of Wyoming)H-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Performance terms measure how close an irrigation event is to an ideal one. An ideal or a reference irrigation is one that can apply the right amount of water over the entire region of interest (subject region) without loss. The key phrase, used in the description of a reference irrigation, has been used as the criterion for identifying the performance terms that constitute a complete set, corresponding to any given irrigation regime. Indices have been defined to quantify the performanc...
16 CitationsSource
#1Zhi Wang (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 17
#2D. Zerihun (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 4
Last. Jan Feyen (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 48
view all 3 authors...
Abstract On-farm water management systems are traditionally evaluated using a set of performance indices which are inconvenient for evaluation and comparison. We propose a general efficiency ( E g ) which is defined as the ratio of crop transpiration to the sum of the volume of applied water and the volume of deficit. E g combines the characteristics of traditionally used irrigation efficiencies: application efficiency ( E a ), storage efficiency ( E s ) and the Christiansen's coefficient of uni...
19 CitationsSource
1 Citations
#1D. Zerihun (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 4
#2J Mohanreddy (UW: University of Wyoming)H-Index: 9
Last. G. Breinburg (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 1
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There exist capabilities for analyzing the behavior of surface flow and the ultimate distribution of infiltrated water in furrow irrigation. The corresponding synthesis, i.e., the selection of appropriate combinations of inflow rates, cutoff times and length of furrow — design and management, currently not so well established, is treated herein. A design-management nomograph is proposed for free draining graded furrows. This is a plot of efficiency, time of cutoff and uniformity coefficient cont...
3 CitationsSource
Cited By6
Newest
#1R. Lalehzari (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 3
#2Faride Ansari Samani (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz)H-Index: 1
Last. Saeed Boroomand-Nasab (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz)H-Index: 5
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Evaluation procedures have been developed for effective design and management of irrigation systems. Furrow irrigation is one of the main types of applying water in the field. In the present study, a new procedure for field evaluation of water distribution in furrow irrigation is proposed. For this purpose, application efficiency (Ea), water requirement efficiency (Er), deep percolation (DP) and tail water ratio (TWR) have been introduced, based on the average of dimensionless infiltrated depth ...
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#1Eduardo A. Holzapfel (UdeC: University of Concepción)H-Index: 13
#2Carlos Leiva (UdeC: University of Concepción)H-Index: 1
Last. Max Billib (Leibniz University of Hanover)H-Index: 10
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This study analyzes the relationship between the variables of furrow irrigation and the irrigation performance parameters, crop yield, and deep percolation as a basis for furrow irrigation design and management. Application efficiency (AE), requirement efficiency (RE), requirement distribution efficiency (RDE), total distribution efficiency (TDE), and furrow irrigation management, operation, and design variables (inflow discharge, furrow length, and irrigation cutoff time) were correlated. The r...
7 CitationsSource
#1Luciano Mateos (CSIC: Spanish National Research Council)H-Index: 23
Standard evaluation procedures, based on field measurements and statistical, hydraulic models, have been developed for assessing irrigation systems performance. However, given the diverse nature of the irrigation methods, it is not possible to use a unique evaluation procedure. Ideally, variables would be measured at every point throughout the field under study, but that is clearly impractical. Instead, measurements are taken of selected samples, or irrigation models are used to predict field-wi...
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#1D. Zerihun (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
#2Charles A SanchezH-Index: 24
Last. Muluneh YitayewH-Index: 12
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Application efficiency (Ea) is the primary criterion for border irrigation design and management. The objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of the application efficiency function of border irrigation with respect to border length (L) and unit inlet flow rate (qo), given a target minimum application depth. The results show that the application efficiency function is unimodal with respect to L and qo. Optimality conditions are derived for both the Ea(L) and Ea(qo) functions, based on ...
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This article presents an accurate and simplified method for designing a furrow irrigation system that would be useful in arid regions with clay soils. Field experiments were conducted at a site in Egypt where cotton is grown in clay soils. The site is usually irrigated every 10 days and follows a three-turn crop rotation. Several parameters were measured including furrow geometry, slope, width, length, infiltration characteristics, advance time, cut-off time, depletion time, and recession time. ...
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#1D. Zerihun (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 7
#2Charles A Sanchez (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 24
Last. D. J. HunsakerH-Index: 1
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The application of N fertilizers mixed with a surface irrigation stream (surface N fertigation) is widely practiced in the southwestern United States. Procedures for the optimal design and management of surface N fertigation systems are needed. The purpose of this work is to identify and define a set of performance indices that can be used to assess the relative merits of alternative design and management scenarios. Equations and solutions for quantifying the performance indices are proposed. Sa...
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