Apoptosis in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Understanding of the Physiology, Pathology and Therapeutic Avenues
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder with complex etiology. Apoptosis, a biological process that plays an essential role in normal physiology to oust a few cells and contribute to the normal growth, when impaired or influenced by various factors such as Bcl2, Bax, caspases, amyloid beta, tumor necrosis factor-α, amyloid precursor protein intracellular C-terminal domain, reactive oxygen species, perturbation of enzymes leads to deleterious neurodegenerative disorders like AD. There are diverse pathways that provoke manifold events in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to execute the process of cell death. This review summarizes the crucial apoptotic mechanisms occurring in both mitochondria and ER. It gives substantial summary of the diverse mechanisms studied in vivo and in vitro. A brief account on neuroprotection of several bioactive components, flavonoids and antioxidants of plants against apoptotic events of both mitochondria and ER in both in vitro and in vivo has been discussed. In light of this, the burgeoning need to develop animal models to study the efficacy of various therapeutic effects has been accentuated.