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Recommendations on the use and design of risk matrices

Published on Jul 1, 2015in Safety Science 3.62
· DOI :10.1016/j.ssci.2015.02.014
Nijs Jan10
Estimated H-index: 10
(DTU: Technical University of Denmark)
Risk matrices are widely used in risk management. They are a regular feature in various risk management standards and guidelines and are also used as formal corporate risk acceptance criteria. It is only recently, however, that scientific publications have appeared that discuss the weaknesses of the risk matrix. The objective of this paper is to explore these weaknesses, and provide recommendations for the use and design of risk matrices. The paper reviews the few relevant publications and adds some observations of its own in order to emphasize existing recommendations and add some suggestions. The recommendations cover a range of issues, among them: the relation between coloring the risk matrix and the definition of risk and major hazard aversion; the qualitative, subjective assessment of likelihood and consequence; the scaling of the discrete likelihood and consequence categories; and the use of corporate risk matrix standards. Finally, it proposes a probability consequence diagram with continuous scales; providing, in some instances, an alternative to the risk matrix.
  • References (13)
  • Citations (55)
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Safety Science 3.62
Ben Ale20
Estimated H-index: 20
(TU Delft: Delft University of Technology),
Peter Burnap17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Cardiff University),
David Slater1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Cardiff University)
The development of parallel ISO "risk" standards series - ISO 31,000 and 27,000 and now Security Risk (28,001) versions, underlines the divergences in requirements from the different currently practising risk management communities. This is highlighted in the content of the series of ongoing web based discussions (Linked in) (Institute of Risk management, 2011). The contributions have been thoughtful, authoritative and illuminating and it is reassuring that even after (or perhaps because of) rec...
Published on Apr 1, 2013in Risk Analysis 2.56
Tim Bedford20
Estimated H-index: 20
Group risk is usually represented by FN-curves showing the frequency of different accident sizes for a given activity. Many governments regulate group risk through FN-criterion lines which define the tolerable location of an FN-curve. However, to compare different risk reduction alternatives one must be able to rank FN-curves. The two main problems in doing this are that the FN-curve contains multiple frequencies, and that there are usually large epistemic uncertainties about the curve. Since th...
Published on Feb 1, 2012in Journal of Risk Research 1.70
E.S. Levine1
Estimated H-index: 1
Risk matrices are a common tool used throughout the public and private sector to assess and manage risk qualitatively. However, these matrices have well-documented shortcomings when used for either assessment or management that can be shown by assuming a quantitative scale for the likelihood and consequence axes. This article describes the construction of a logarithmically scaled risk assessment matrix which alleviates some of the limitations inherent in using linearly structured risk matrices. ...
Published on Dec 1, 2010in Safety Science 3.62
H. Ni1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Anthony Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Ningshan Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ISEP: Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto)
This paper introduces the basic concepts of risk as the research background and reviews a widely applied semi-quantitative tool for risk assessment, namely risk matrix approach (RMA) as well as its typical variations. Based on the deep analysis of the essence and defects of RMA, some extensions on risk matrix approach are presented and their superiorities compared with the related quondam methods are demonstrated by a case study. The features and advantages of the new extensions are discussed an...
Katherine P. Prem4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Texas A&M University System),
Dedy Ng13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Texas A&M University System),
M. Sam Mannan29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Texas A&M University System)
Analyzing historical databases can provide valuable information on the incident occurrences and their consequences for assessing the safety of the chemical process industry. In this study, the RMP and HSEES databases were utilized to understand the patterns and the factors influencing chemical process industry incidents. Frequency exceedance curves were generated by utilizing the different incident consequences from the databases to understand the profile of societal loss from reported incidents...
Published on May 1, 2010in Ibm Journal of Research and Development 0.79
Douglas Hubbard1
Estimated H-index: 1
Dylan Evans9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UCC: University College Cork)
Risk assessment methods based on scoring methods that rate the severity of each risk factor on an ordinal scale are widely used and frequently perceived by users to have value. We argue that this perceived benefit is probably illusory in most cases. We begin by describing a number of common scoring methods currently used to assess risk in a variety of different domains. We then review the literature on the use of ordinal scales in risk analysis, the use of "verbal scales" for eliciting estimates...
Published on Nov 1, 2009in Systems Engineering 0.85
Eric D. Smith9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UTEP: University of Texas at El Paso),
William T. Siefert1
Estimated H-index: 1
David Drain1
Estimated H-index: 1
Risk matrices used in industry characterize particular risks in terms of the likelihood of occurreRisk matrix input data biaseshe actualized risk. Human cognitive bias research led by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky exposed systematic translations of objective probability and value as judged by human subjects. Applying these translations to the risk matrix allows the formation of statistical hypotheses of risk point placement biases. Industry-generated risk matrix data reveals evidence of biase...
Published on Nov 1, 2008in Journal of Hazardous Materials 7.65
Adam S. Markowski12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Łódź),
M. Sam Mannan29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Texas A&M University System)
A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic input...
Cited By55
Donghong Tian (SWPU: Southwest Petroleum University), Chunlan Zhao (SWPU: Southwest Petroleum University)+ 1 AuthorsMeng Zhou (SWPU: Southwest Petroleum University)
Abstract This paper mainly proposes a novel method to construct a risk matrix for assessing safety risks in oil and gas industry. There are often multiple experts and multiple criteria involved in safety risk assessment problems and the assessment data are often given in the form of interval numbers. In order to better assess risks, the definition of interval number with distribution function and utility function is proposed in this paper. The frequency and the consequence of risk are only two n...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Safety Science 3.62
Benyamin Karimi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(École Polytechnique de Montréal),
Damien Burlet-Vienney4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail)
+ 1 AuthorsBarthélemy Aucourt2
Estimated H-index: 2
(École Polytechnique de Montréal)
Abstract National standards and regulations in many countries establish requirements for controlling hazardous energy related to machinery that could cause accidents linked to the release of these energies, unexpected energization or start-up of machines or equipment. These standards and regulations describe alternative methods to lockout and the conditions for using them. The purpose of the study is to understand the application of alternative methods to lockout and investigate how they are imp...
Published on May 1, 2019in Computers & Industrial Engineering 3.52
R. J. Kuo12
Estimated H-index: 12
Yusuf Nugroho , Ferani E. Zulvia7
Estimated H-index: 7
Abstract Reducing negative risk and the associated contingency cost in a project becomes a challenging task for managers. Inadequate and excessive contingency can lead to budget overrun and bidding loss, respectively. In the other hand, lowering the contingency also needs risk-handling cost which will, in turn, be added to project budget. Within limited budget, managers should make an optimum adjustment between reduction of contingency and the increase of risk-handling cost from multiple risk it...
T. Skoczkowski1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Warsaw University of Technology),
S. Bielecki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Warsaw University of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsKatarzyna Korczak (Warsaw University of Technology)
Abstract Transformation of coal-dependent regions in the European Union has received much lower research interest than industry decarbonisation. Moreover, even if territorial strategies are proposed, positive aspects are highlighted, while the risks are neglected or not addressed explicitly. In this context, we explore transition stakeholders’ beliefs and perception about political, economic, social, environmental and technological risks and opportunities for the coal-dependent region of Silesia...
Abstract As an important part of the protection measures, safety instrumented systems are widely used in process industries, especially in coal chemical industry. The setpoint value and process safety time (PST), which are contents of safety requirements, of the safety instrumented function (SIF) directly affects whether the safety function can correctly protect a specific scenario. In this paper, the setpoint value and PST of the SIF of “low coke oxygen ratio” is studied. The HAZOP-LOPA method ...
This study examines the importance of basic educational, organizational and operational structures of interaction under risk, and how these vary with competence level within an organization. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there are any basic components that can provide further insight into how competence for interaction under risk can be developed and implemented. The first aim was, therefore, to examine the relationship between components of the basic educational, organizationa...
Published on May 1, 2019in Risk Analysis 2.56
Gulsum Kubra Kaya (University of Cambridge), James Ward11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Cambridge),
P. John Clarkson47
Estimated H-index: 47
(University of Cambridge)
In healthcare, patient safety has received substantial attention and, in turn, a number of approaches to managing safety have been adopted from other high-risk industries. One of these has been risk assessment, predominantly through the use of risk matrices. However, while other industries have criticized the design and use of these risk matrices, the applicability of such criticism has not been investigated formally in healthcare. This study examines risk matrices as used in acute hospitals in ...
Weijun Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(SDUST: Shandong University of Science and Technology),
Yibo Sun1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsYuquan Cui
Abstract Complex systems often experience a long period of incubation before accidents occur. Therefore, a proactive risk assessment is essential for process safety. The conventional job hazard analysis (JHA) method has been an effective tool to conduct a process risk assessment in the high-risk industrial field. However, the conventional JHA is inadequate for the proactive risk assessment since it is usually conducted during and before one specific operation process. Operations such as startup ...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Advanced Engineering Informatics 3.77
Bo Song4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Shanghai Maritime University),
Wei Yan16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Shanghai Maritime University),
Tianjiao Zhang (Shanghai Ocean University)
Abstract The potentially conflicting regulations of different countries can cause significant risk for cross-border e-commerce (CBEC), since the multi-varieties, small-batch transaction mode of CBEC prohibit the customs from carrying out comprehensive inspection on commodity quality. In this paper, a risk assessment method utilizing text mining and fuzzy rule-based reasoning is proposed, which is able to assess CBEC commodity risk quantitatively and semi-automatically. To do this, first the comm...