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Triclosan and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

Published on Jul 1, 2000in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 5.11
· DOI :10.1093/jac/46.1.11
M. T. E. Suller1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Cardiff University),
A.D. Russell45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Cardiff University)
Cite
Abstract
Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.
  • References (20)
  • Citations (197)
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References20
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2000in Journal of Hospital Infection 3.70
A.D. Russell45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Cardiff University),
G. McDonnell1
Estimated H-index: 1
Several factors are known to influence the activity of the active ingredients in antiseptics, disinfectants and preserved products (collective term used hereafter: biocides).1,2 These include the period of contact with micro-organisms, presence of interfering materials (e.g., organic or inorganic soils), formulation effects, temperature of contact and the nature and type of target micro-organisms. In this last category, for example, due consideration must be given to intrinsic, adaptive and acqu...
Published on Dec 1, 1999in Journal of Hospital Infection 3.70
M.T.E. Suller1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Cardiff University),
A.D. Russell45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Cardiff University)
Abstract Concern has been growing regarding the potential of antibiotic and disinfectant coresistance in clinically important bacteria. In this study, the susceptibilities of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) to chlorhexidine (CHX), the quaternary ammonium compounds cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BC), triclosan, dibromopropamidine isethionate (DBPI) and triclocarban were compared. MRSA exhibited lo...
Published on Apr 1, 1999in Nature 43.07
Colin Levy25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Sheffield),
Anna Roujeinikova18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Sheffield)
+ 5 AuthorsJohn B. Rafferty27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Sheffield)
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) has been used for more than 30 years as a general antibacterial and antifungal agent, and is found in formulations as diverse as toothpastes, cosmetics, antiseptic soaps, carpets, plastic kitchenware and toys. It has recently been suggested that triclosan blocks lipid biosynthesis by specifically inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR)1. We have carried out a structural analysis and inhibition experiments on a complex o...
Published on Apr 1, 1999in The Lancet 59.10
Marilynn Larkin14
Estimated H-index: 14
Published on Mar 1, 1999in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 4.71
Laura M. McMurry24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Patrick F. McDermott52
Estimated H-index: 52
,
Stuart B. Levy77
Estimated H-index: 77
(Tufts University)
Three Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants selected for resistance to triclosan each had a different mutation in InhA, an enoyl reductase involved in fatty acid synthesis. Two expressed some isoniazid resistance. A mutation originally selected on isoniazid also mediated triclosan resistance, as did the wild-type inhA gene on a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the mutant chromosomal inhA genes with wild-type inhA eliminated resistance. These results suggest that M. smegmatis InhA, like its Escherichi...
Published on Feb 1, 1999in Journal of Hospital Infection 3.70
A.I. Bamber1
Estimated H-index: 1
(RLUH: Royal Liverpool University Hospital),
T.J. Neal2
Estimated H-index: 2
(RLUH: Royal Liverpool University Hospital)
Abstract Triclosan is widely used to reduce skin colonization with staphylococci and is incorporated into methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) eradication regimes. Using an agar dilution method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to triclosan was determined for 186 isolates of MRSA and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Fourteen isolates (7·5%) were detected with a MIC≥1·0 part per million (ppm). There was no significant difference between the incidence of ...
Published on Nov 13, 1998in Journal of Biological Chemistry
Richard J. Heath34
Estimated H-index: 34
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital),
Yuen-Tsu Yu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital)
+ 2 AuthorsCharles O. Rock26
Estimated H-index: 26
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital)
Abstract The broad spectrum antibacterial properties of 2-hydroxydiphenyl ethers have been appreciated for decades, and their use in consumer products is rapidly increasing. We identify the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabI) component of the type II fatty acid synthase system as the specific cellular target for these antibacterials. Biologically active 2-hydroxydiphenyl ethers effectively inhibit fatty acid synthesis in vivo and FabI activity in vitro. Resistant mechanisms include up-re...
Published on Sep 15, 1998in Fems Microbiology Letters 1.99
Laura M. McMurry24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Tufts University),
Margret Oethinger11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Tufts University),
Stuart B. Levy77
Estimated H-index: 77
(Tufts University)
Triclosan (Irgasan) is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent used in handsoaps, toothpastes, fabrics, and plastics. It inhibits lipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, probably by action upon enoyl reductase (FabI) (McMurry L.M., Oethinger M. and Levy S.B. (1988) Nature 394, 531–532). We report here that overexpression of the multidrug efflux pump locus acrAB, or of marA or soxS, both encoding positive regulators of acrAB, decreased susceptibility to triclosan 2-fold. Deletion of the acrAB locus ...
Published on Aug 1, 1998in Journal of Hospital Infection 3.70
G.A.J. Ayliffe26
Estimated H-index: 26
,
A Buckles2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Liverpool)
+ 12 AuthorsH. Humphreys1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Nottingham)
Published on Aug 1, 1998in Nature 43.07
Laura M. McMurry24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Tufts University),
Margret Oethinger11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Tufts University),
Stuart B. Levy77
Estimated H-index: 77
(Tufts University)
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent1,2, which acts by previously undetermined mechanisms, that is used in products such as antiseptic soaps, toothpastes, fabrics and plastics. Here we show that triclosan blocks lipid synthesis in Escherichia coli, and that mutations in, or overexpression of, the gene fabI (which encodes enoyl reductase, involved in fatty acid synthesis) prevents this blockage. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence that triclosan acts on a spe...
Cited By197
Newest
Published on Apr 29, 2019in The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology
Devan Hemalatha2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Bharathiar University),
Basuvannan Rangasamy1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bharathiar University)
+ 1 AuthorsMathan Ramesh16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Bharathiar University)
Background The present study was designed to determine the median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of triclosan (TCS) and to investigate the effect of a sublethal concentrations of TCS on the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminases (GPT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the gill, liver, and muscle of an Indian major carp Catla catla.
N. Amadu Baba (University for Development Studies), A. K. Quainoo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University for Development Studies)
+ 1 AuthorsF. J. Awuku (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research)
False yam (Icacina oliviformis) is a drought-resistant root crop found in Northern Ghana. Research confirms it to contain some levels of antimicrobial, antifungal, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of False yam extracts incorporated in liquid soap against selected microorganisms. Polar solvent (methanol, ethanol, and water) extracts from the leaves, tuber (root), peels (root bark), and seeds were diluted with liquid...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Carbohydrate Polymers 6.04
Ainara Valverde (UPV/EHU: University of the Basque Country), Leyre Pérez-Álvarez11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UPV/EHU: University of the Basque Country)
+ 4 AuthorsJosé Luis Vilas-Vilela3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UPV/EHU: University of the Basque Country)
Abstract Bacterial contamination is a critical problem in medical implants, which are preferential sites for bacterial adhesion, leading to infections which can compromise health and immune system of patients. Commercial titanium alloys are the most commonly used materials for permanent implants in contact with bone, and the prevention of infections on their surface is therefore a crucial challenge for orthopaedic and dental surgeons. Thus, the aim of this work is to develop polysaccharide antib...
Published on Dec 30, 2018
Prachiben Panchal1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Emmanuel O. Ogunsona6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Tizazu Mekonnen10
Estimated H-index: 10
The need to transition to more sustainable and renewable technology has resulted in a focus on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs) as one of the materials of the future with potential for replacing currently used synthetic materials. Its abundance and bio-derived source make it attractive and sought after as well. CNFs and CNCs are naturally hydrophilic due to the abundance of -OH group on their surface which makes them an excellent recipient for applications in the medical indu...
Published on Nov 17, 2018in Journal of Microencapsulation 2.04
Pratibha G. Kakadia2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Huddersfield),
Barbara R. Conway23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Huddersfield)
AbstractHealthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a concern for health service providers, exacerbated by poor delivery of antimicrobials to target sites within the skin. The dermal route is attractive for local and systemic delivery of drugs, however; permeation, penetration, and access to deeper skin layers are restricted due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC). Solid lipid nanoparticles present several benefits for topical delivery for therapeutic applications, especially via...
Published on Mar 26, 2018in Journal of Bacteriology 3.23
Phillip C. Delekta1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Michigan State University),
John C. Shook1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Michigan State University)
+ 2 AuthorsNeal D. Hammer3
Estimated H-index: 3
(MSU: Michigan State University)
ABSTRACT Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to global health. Consequently, much effort has focused on the development of new antimicrobials that target novel aspects of S. aureus physiology. Fatty acids are required to maintain cell viability, and bacteria synthesize fatty acids using the type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. FASII is significantly different from human fatty acid synthesis, underscoring the therapeutic potential of inhibiting this pathway. Ho...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Fibers and Polymers 1.44
Mikhail Novikov2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UM: University of Malaya),
Kwai Lin Thong1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UM: University of Malaya)
+ 1 AuthorsSharifah Bee Abd Hamid33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UM: University of Malaya)
The efficacy of antimicrobial treatment of cotton fabrics depends on various parameters of the coating process, such as the chemical nature and concentration of the antimicrobial agent, the composition of the crosslinking formulation, and the curing temperature. The inclusion complex of triclosan with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, XRD, NMR, Raman, SEM, and TGA. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the complex against Kle...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Poultry Science 2.03
Tomi Obe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(MSU: Mississippi State University),
Rama Nannapaneni5
Estimated H-index: 5
(MSU: Mississippi State University)
+ 1 AuthorsA. S. Kiess10
Estimated H-index: 10
(MSU: Mississippi State University)
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Embo Molecular Medicine 10.62
Jessica V. Ribado2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Stanford University),
Catherine Ley12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Stanford University)
+ 3 AuthorsJulie Parsonnet50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Stanford University)
Abstract In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of specific microbicides in some household and personal wash products due to concerns that these chemicals might induce antibiotic resistance or disrupt human microbial communities. Triclosan and triclocarban (referred to as TCs) are the most common antimicrobials in household and personal care products, but the extent to which TC exposure perturbs microbial communities in humans, particularly during infant development, was unk...